The nation of Canada is divided into ten different provinces, the sub-national governments within the geographic areas of the nation. Provinces are different from territories because of how they receive their power and authority. Provinces are governed based on the Constitution Act of 1867, while the three territories of Canada are granted their powers through the Parliament of Canada. If the division of power between the provinces and the federal government of Canada needs to be changed, a constitutional amendment is required.
The provinces are considered sovereign because of how responsibilities are divided between the federal and provincial governments based on the Constitution Act. Each province is represented by a lieutenant governor, a ceremonial position for the Crown that does not have any actual political power.
On the ten provinces, Ontario is the largest, boasting a population of over 14 million people. The largest city in Ontario is Toronto, which is also the capital of the province. Toronto has a population closing in on 3 million as of 2019.
Quebec is a province that also has a sizable population with over 8.4 million residents. Major cities found in Quebec include Montreal, which is the second largest city in the nation, and Quebec City, the capital of Quebec.
British Columbia also has a large population, although it’s almost half of the population of Quebec. The province of British Columbia has a population of over 4.8 million, with the most populous cities including Vancouver and the capital city, Victoria.
Of the 10 provinces, just three have populations that fall under 1 million. Prince Edward Island is the smallest with a population of over 500,000. The smallest by area is also Prince Edward Island, followed by Nova Scotia, each of which have larger populations than Newfoundland but have not yet reached 1 million residents.