China Population 2016

China, officially the People's Republic of China, is comfortably the largest country in the world today. In January 2013, the Chinese Government released data confirming that the population of China was an impressive 1,354,040,000, although this does not include Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. As of September 2013, that number had grown even further to 1,360,720,000. The current 2015 estimate based on United Nations projections, is just over 1.4 billion.

India, the next largest country, has 120 million fewer people, for a population of 1.28 billion. The United States, the third largest country in the world, has a much smaller population of 323 million. Estimates show that India will pass China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025.

Unfortunately, there isn’t a really simple answer to the question of how many people live in China. That's because it is a country of several different parts, not all of which is governed by Beijing.

To understand China's population and demographics, it helps to understand its government a bit. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is governed by the Communist Party with its seat of government in Beijing, which exercises jurisdiction over 5 autonomous regions, 22 provinces, 4 direct-controlled municipalities and 2 primarily self-governing special administrative regions (Macau and Hong Kong). The PRC also claims Taiwan, which is controlled by a separate political entity called the Republic of China (ROC) as its 23rd province. This makes population figures a bit confusing.

The figure quoted at the top of this article, for example, doesn’t include the island of Taiwan, which the PRC claims as a part of China. Nor does it include the former British and Portugese colonies of Hong Kong and Macau, which are governed as special administrative regions.

China Population Density

As a whole, China has a population density of 139.6 people per square kilometer, or 363.3 people per square mile. This ranks 81st, despite the country itself being one of the largest in terms of size and the largest in terms of population.

The density figures change dramatically when you look at the largest urban areas, however. Shanghai, the largest city in the country and the world, has a population density of 3,700 people per square kilometer, or 9,700 people per square mile.

Surprisingly, none of China's cities make the list of the top 30 most densely populated cities in the world, most of which are in India, the Philippines, France and other countries. Macau, however, is the 36th most densely populated city with a density of 18,568 people per square kilometer (48,092 per square mile). Macau tops the list of sovereign states and dependent territories in terms of population density. Despite this tightly packed area, it still has the second highest life expectancy in the world and remains one of the few areas in Asia to receive a "very high Human Development Index" ranking.

China Demographics

Today, China is considered a middle-income country, and its rapid growth over the decades has pulled hundreds of millions of its citizens out of poverty. About 10% of the population in the country lives on $1 USD a day, compared to 64% just 35 years ago.

Although 56 different ethnic groups are officially recognized in China, 91.51% of Chinese are Han Chinese. Only one other group – Zhuang – has a larger than 1% share of the population. Other ethnic groups are growing at a higher rate than Han Chinese, but because of the massive dominance of Han Chinese, this is not expected to dramatically alter China’s ethnic composition.

China is officially an atheist state, and doesn’t survey its people on their religion. So, as you can imagine, no accurate figures are available. China's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, although any religious organization without official approval faces state persecution. A 2007 survey in the country found that about 31% of its citizens over 16 consider themselves religious.

Chinese culture and civilization has been influenced by many religious movements over the past 1,000 years, and Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are considered the country's "Three Religions" based on their cultural and historical impact. China has also seen an interesting syncing of these three religions in the form of a folk religion that is common throughout the country.

About 2% of the population is Islamic, with a Christian population between 3.2% and 5%. Buddhism is practiced by 10 to 18% of Chinese residents while over 30% practice local folk religions.

China's Population History

China has had a rocky population history, littered with war, famine, and natural disasters. Five of the nine most deadly wars took place in China, killing an estimated total of over 123 million people. The most deadly was the Three Kingdom period (220AD - 280AD), where an estimated 40 million people died from war, famine, and disease. In 1850, a man named Hong Xiuquan led a rebellion to try to create the "Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping." By proclaiming himself to be the younger brother of Jesus, he grew his following to between 10,000 and 30,000 followers, and by late 1850 they controlled over a third of China. During the 15 years of the rebellion, an estimated 20-30 million people died, primarily due to plague and famine.

China's Growth Problems

The size of China's population has long been a hot political issue in China. After rapid population growth in the middle of the 20th century, the Chinese Government sought to limit population growth by introducting the famous ‘one child policy.’

The scheme, which rewards couples that agree to have just one child with cash bonuses and better access to housing, has proved so successful that the birth rate of 1.4 children per woman has fallen below the replenishment rate of 2.1 children per woman that is needed to maintain the level of population. As a result, experts are now concerned that China’s low birth rate, combined with its aging population, will damage it’s future economic development.

The one child policy has been met with a great deal of resistance, particularly in rural areas. Families who breach this policy tend to lie on census polls, so the true population of China may be a bit skewed. This means that Chinese population statistics have become less reliable since the policy began in the 1970's.

Much of China’s economic growth has been attributed to its abundant and cheap workforce, combined with its low social costs. With the number of young Chinese falling and the number of elderly Chinese increasing, it is not certain whether China’s economy can continue to grow at the same rapid rate, and the Government is facing increasing calls to abandon its one child policy.

China also has an abnormal ratio of male to female births. Whereas in most countries more girls are born than boys, in China the reverse is true. Many suspect that this is because of a preference for boys among Chinese families. Whatever the reason, it is likely that this will impact on China’s aging population as women continue to be seen as the primary caregivers within Chinese society.

China Population Clock

What is the population of China (as of [[date]])? [[getCurrentPopulation()]]
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2016) [[getLastEstimate()]]
Births Per Day 43,559
Deaths Per Day 28,062
Net Migrations Per Day -821
Net Change Per Day 14,676
Population Change Since January 1st [[getPopChangeThisYear()]]
  • Net [[getIncreaseOrDecrease()]] of 1 person every [[getDurationPerPerson()]]

  • Population estimated based on interpolation of World Population Prospects data.

China Population Indicators

Indicator Value World Ranking
Crude Birth Rate 11.449 births/thousand 150th
Crude Death Rate 7.376 deaths/thousand 100th
Crude Net Migration Rate -0.216 people/thousand 91st
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 76.5 years 62nd
Life Expectancy (Male) 75.03 years 51st
Life Expectancy (Female) 78.08 years 87th
Total Fertility Rate 1.591 children/woman 161st
Net Reproduction Rate 0.727 surviving daughters/woman 171st
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.15 males per female 1st
Infant Mortality Rate 9.599 deaths/1,000 live births 119th
Under Five Mortality 11.187 deaths/thousand 122nd
Mean Age at Childbearing 26.686 years 180th

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision)

China Population Growth

China's population projections are very interesting, given that it is the most populous country in the world. According to current projections, China's population will finally peak in 2030 with a shrinking labor force and an over-65 population of 240 million. Only Japan has aged faster than China.

China has another very serious demographic problem due to sex-selective abortion and its one-child policy, resulting in a ratio of 120 boys for every 100 girls. It's estimated that the percentage of men in their late 30's who have never married will quintuple by 2030, and this large number of unmarried young men will have a detrimental impact on population growth.

By 2028, both India and China are estimated to have 1.45 billion residents each, but India will start to take 1st place with a growth continuing until 2050, while China's population is expected to decline after 2030.

China Population History

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Density Rank Growth Rate World Rank
2016 1,382,323,332 51.5% 48.5% 147 57 0.43% 1
2015 1,376,048,943 51.5% 48.5% 146 58 0.45% 1
2010 1,340,968,737 51.5% 48.5% 142 57 0.54% 1
2005 1,305,600,630 51.4% 48.6% 139 54 0.53% 1
2000 1,269,974,572 51.4% 48.6% 135 50 0.57% 1
1995 1,227,841,281 51.4% 48.6% 130 52 0.84% 1
1990 1,154,605,773 51.3% 48.7% 122 53 1.52% 1
1985 1,052,622,409 51.3% 48.7% 112 55 1.81% 1
1980 977,837,433 51.3% 48.7% 104 54 1.39% 1
1975 905,580,445 51.3% 48.7% 96 56 1.76% 1
1970 808,510,713 51.3% 48.7% 86 60 2.55% 1
1965 706,590,947 51.4% 48.6% 75 64 2.5% 1
1960 644,450,173 51.5% 48.5% 68 63 1.57% 1
1955 598,574,241 51.7% 48.3% 63 63 1.43% 1
1950 544,112,923 51.8% 48.2% 57 65 2.67% 1

China Population Projections

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Density Rank Growth Rate World Rank
2020 1,402,847,838 51.5% 48.5% 149 60 0.26% 1
2025 1,414,872,342 51.5% 48.5% 150 60 0.07% 2
2030 1,415,545,109 51.5% 48.5% 150 64 -0.06% 2
2035 1,408,316,052 51.5% 48.5% 150 66 -0.16% 2
2040 1,394,714,890 51.5% 48.5% 148 68 -0.25% 2
2045 1,374,657,061 51.5% 48.5% 146 72 -0.35% 2
2050 1,348,056,330 51.6% 48.4% 143 78 -0.45% 2
2055 1,315,148,137 51.7% 48.3% 140 78 -0.56% 2
2060 1,276,757,047 51.9% 48.1% 135 80 -0.63% 2
2065 1,236,664,095 52% 48% 131 83 -0.64% 2
2070 1,197,533,065 52.2% 47.8% 127 88 -0.64% 2
2075 1,159,644,893 52.2% 47.8% 123 91 -0.65% 2
2080 1,122,569,261 52.2% 47.8% 119 94 -0.65% 2
2085 1,087,073,722 52.2% 47.8% 115 95 -0.62% 2
2090 1,055,072,644 52.2% 47.8% 112 98 -0.55% 2
2095 1,028,079,962 52.1% 47.9% 109 98 -0.48% 2
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations
  2. National Bureau of Statistics of China