Egypt Population 2018
Egypt, known officially as the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country which spans the southwest corner of Asia and the northeast corner of Africa. This is made possible through a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Most of Egypt is located in North Africa. It is bordered by both land and sea: the Mediterranean is to its North, Israel and the Gaza Strip to the Northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to its East, the Red Sea to the East and South, Libya to the West and Sudan to the South.
Egypt is one of the most populous countries in Africa and the Middle East. With a 2018 estimated population of 99.38 million, Egypt ranks 15th in the world. This is up from the last official census figure of 72.7 million in 2006.
Cairo alone, which is the capital city of Egypt, has a population of around 10.902 million people (according to estimations made in 2009). The population density of Egypt as a whole is 84 people per square kilometer (218/square mile), with Cairo having the heaviest density at 46,349 per kilometer square. Overall, Egypt ranks 126th in the world in terms of population density.
Estimates made in 2012 predicted the population growth rate to be 1.922%, and a fertility rate of 2.94 children born per woman, the latter in line with South Asian and Middle Eastern averages. Besides these factors contributing to growth rate, there has been a general boom in population immigration and medical advances, although the recent political and military conflicts have caused a negative growth rate.
Approximately 2.7 million Egyptians are found living abroad, as estimated by the International Organization for Migration. These include the Arab countries, like Saudi Arabia, Libya, Jordan and Kuwait, where 70% of the Egyptian immigrants reside. The rest of the 30% inhabit Europe and North America (90,000 in Italy, 110,000 in Canada and 318,000 in the United States). Constituting 91%, Ethnic Egyptians are the leading group of Egypt’s population.
Egypt Population History
During 1970 to 2010, there was a population boom due to advancements in agricultural productivity and medical fields, which were made possible due to the Green Revolution. When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, the country’s population amounted to only 3 million. Over the years, population has increased and decreased, due to erratic fluctuation patterns.
The population growth rate during every five years is given as: 1980 to 1985 was estimated at 2.39%, 1985 to 1990 at 2.30%, 1990 to 1995 at 1.76%, 1995 to 2000 at 1.72%, 2000 to 2005 at 1.85% and during 2005 to 2010 at 1.78%. Life expectancy at birth rose by 14.7 years from the period 1980 to 1985, to the period 2005 to 2010, increasing from 57.6 years to 72.3 years. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 101.1 infant deaths per 100 live births; however this number has been decreasing as the years have progressed.
Life expectancy at birth in Egypt in 2012 was estimated at 72.93 years for the total population, with 70.33 years for the male population, and 75.66 years for the female population. The birth rate was of 24.22 births for 1000 people, and the death rate of 4.8 deaths for 1000 people.
Data published by WHO (World Health Organisation) in 2011 showed life expectancy in Egypt at 73.3 for the total population, with 71.3 years for males and 75.4 for females, giving it a world life expectancy ranking of 92 by both WHO and the CIA. Egypt shares this position with countries like Algeria, Dominican Republic, Iran, Nicaragua and Samoa.
Ethnic Egyptians account for 91% of the total population. The largest ethnic minorities include the Turks, Greeks, Abazas, and Bedouin Arab tribes in the Sinai Peninsula and the deserts to the east, as well as the Siwis in the Siwa Oasis and the Nubian people along the Nile.
After Nigeria and Ethiopia, Egypt is the most populated country on the African continent. A majority of the population lives near the banks of the Nile River, which amasses an area of 40,000 square kilometers. This area is the only arable land found in the country. The three largest cities of the country are Cairo, Alexandria and Giza.
According to estimates made in 2012, middle-aged people of 25 to 54 years dominate the age structure at 38.1%, with the least being from 65 years and above at 4.7%. Sex ratio in 2011 was calculated as: at birth (1.05 males/females), under 15 years (1.05 males/females), from 15 to 64 years (1.03 males/females) and 65 years and above (0.82 males/females).
Total education expenditures in 2008 constituted 3.8% of GDP, while health expenditures made in 2009 amounted 6.4% of GDP). In 2012, net migration was -0.2 migrants for 1000 people. The literacy rate calculated in 2010 gave a figure of 72% of the total population; 63.5% females and 80.3% males. The official language is Arabic, while other widely understood and spoken languages by the upper classes include English and French.
In 2010, Egypt’s urban population constituted 43.4% of its urban population. Currently, the rate of urbanization is of 2.1% at an annual rate of change. 99.6% of the total population’s ethnicity was Egyptian, while others amounted to 0.4% in the 2006 census. The dominating religion in the country is that of Islam at 90% (mostly Sunnis); Christianity is at 10% while Judaism is practiced by fewer than 200 people. The Bahai community of fewer than 2000 individuals is not even recognized by the government.
Egypt Population Projections
Egypt’s population is generally rising at an extremely progressive rate, which is causing concern within the government, and an increase in expenditure on family planning policies. However, scholars are questioning this move of the government, as they believe that the high fertility rate and population growth are no longer serious concerns. This is true to the extent that, though the fertility rate is high, it has fallen in the previous years. This can be proved by statistics that show a decrease from 7.2 children per woman in the early 1960’s to 3.4 children per woman in 1998.
There is no doubt about the fact that Egypt’s population has been and will keep increasing as stabilization returns to the county, with forecasts predicting a total population of 123.5 million in 2050.
Components of Population Change
|One birth every 13 seconds|
|One death every 55 seconds|
|One net migrant every 10 minutes|
|Net gain of one person every 17 seconds|
Source: Luc Legay from Paris, France