Ethiopia Population 2018


With one of the highest poverty levels in the world, Ethiopia is considered by many to be one of the most under-developed nations in the world. But within its African boundaries lies a nation filled with a rich culture and heritage. Bordered by Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan, Dijibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia, Ethiopia has an estimated 2018 population of 107.53 million, which ranks 14th in the world.

With a 2018 population of approximately 107.53 million, up from 2015's estimate of 98.9 million, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the continent of Africa and the second-most populous country of Africa after Nigeria. This estimate of how many people live in Ethiopia is based on the most recent United Nations projections, and makes Ethiopia the 14th most populous country in the world. The most recent census in 2007 found an official population of 73.7 million. Ethiopia has a population density of 83 people per square mile (214/square mile), which ranks 123rd in the world.

The largest city and capital of Ethiopia is Addis Ababa, or Addis Abeba, which has an estimated population of 3.6 million in the city proper and a metro population of more than 4.6 million. Being as old as two millenniums, its cultures and traditions hold family as a significant part of Ethiopian life, sometimes even surpassing the significance their careers or businesses might have.

Other major cities include Adama (324,000), Gondar (324,000), Mek'ele (324,000), and Hawassa (302,000).

Ethiopia Demographics

Ethiopia is home to various ethnicities, predominantly the Oromo at 34.4% of the country's population and the Amhara, who account for 27% of the population. Other major ethnic groups include the Somali (6.2%), Tigray (6.1%), Sidama (4%), Gurage (2.5%), Welayta (2.3%), Afar (1.7%), Hadiya (1.7%), and Gamo (1.5%).

In 2009, Ethiopia had an estimated 135,000 asylum seekers and refugees, most from Somalia (64,000), Eritrea (42,000) and Sudan (23,000). The government requires refugees live in designated refugee camps. According to a 2013 report, the number of refugees hosted by Ethiopia has grown to 680,000.

Ethiopia has close ties with all three major Abrahamic religions, and it was the first in the region to officially adopt Christianity in the 4th century. Christians account for 63% of the country's population, with 44% belonging to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Ethiopia has the first Hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement on the continent. Muslims account for 34% of the population.

Poverty in Ethiopia

Despite its wealth in culture, Ethiopia, unfortunately, does not suffer the same fate economically. With a significantly agriculture-based economy, it is not surprising that in today's technologically thriving world, Ethiopia has one of the lowest incomes per capita. Its reliance on domestic investment restricts foreign investment, which could otherwise account for a comparatively successful economy. However, improvement in agricultural practices has shown a decrease in the level of starvation that the country had been previously accustomed to. The GDP is also increasing, showing a 7% increase in 2014. The composition of the labor force is almost 40%, accounting for another step toward progress. However, only if the conditions of the average Ethiopian get better will the country be able to witness a better tomorrow.

Similarly, the conditions of poverty entail deterioration in health for many of Ethiopia's inhabitants. The most common diseases that cause mortality among many Ethiopians are AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and various communicable diseases that occur due to improper sanitation and malnutrition. Most women give birth to children outside of the vicinity of hospitals. Often the mothers are only attended to by an elderly midwife. The mortality rate of mothers while giving birth is high. Various organizations, governmental and non-governmental, seek to improve the deplorable health conditions in Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is working to initiate a healthy Ethiopia. Low literacy levels also support the inferior health conditions. Therefore, it is important to provide the Ethiopians with adequate knowledge regarding common diseases and their appropriate medication and cure. The empowerment of women could also help achieve improvements in the circumstances pertaining to the well-being of Ethiopians.

Ethiopia is a nation that has been beset by hunger and poverty for most of its long history. A land where child starvation and subsequent death have been prevalent for such a long time requires assistance from the more privileged and prosperous nations of the world. It is the responsibility of all members of the peaceful international community to step in with more rigor and determination to empower the Ethiopians. This population has proven to be one of the strongest on the face of the earth, having endured massive hardships. If it is given a little assistance, Ethiopia will be able to build on the strength of its inhabitants in order to increase the strength of the nation itself.

Ethiopia Population Projections

Ethiopia is currently one of the fastest growing countries in the world, with a growth rate of 3.02% per year. If Ethiopia follows its current rate of growth, its population will double in the next 30 years, hitting 210 million by 2060. Most of the world's population growth in the next 40-50 years is expected to come from Africa, and Ethiopia will be a large part of the growth.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 10 seconds
One death every 45 seconds
One net migrant every 44 minutes
Net gain of one person every 12 seconds

Ethiopia Population in 2018Source: Manuel Dohmen

Ethiopia Population Pyramid 2018

0k500k1M2MEthiopia Male Population0k500k1M2MEthiopia Female Population10095908580757065605550454035302520151050

Ethiopia Median Age







Ethiopia Population by Age

There are 54,854,713 adults in Ethiopia.

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Ethiopia Population Growth

If Ethiopia follows its current rate of growth (3.02%), its population will double in the next 20 years and cross 188 million by 2050. Most of the world's population growth in the next 40-50 years is expected to come from Africa, and Ethiopia will be a large part of the growth.

About Ethiopia

Official NameFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Languages SpokenAmharic
Is LandlockedYes
Currencies UsedEthiopia Birr

Ethiopia Population Density

Ethiopia Top 20 Cities by Population

Name Population
Addis Ababa2,757,729
Dire Dawa252,279
Bahir Dar168,899
Arba Minch69,622
Debre Mark'os59,920
Debre Birhan57,787

Ethiopia Population Clock

The population of Ethiopia (as of 2/13/2018)?106,568,073
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2018)107,534,882
Births Per Day9,023
Deaths Per Day1,933
Net Migrations Per Day -33
Net Change Per Day 7,057
Population Change Since January 1st310,508

Ethiopia Population Indicators

Crude Birth Rate 30.996 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 6.642 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate -0.113 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 65.97 years
Male Life Expectancy 64.09 years
Female Life Expectancy 67.88 years
Total Fertility Rate 4.025 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 1.789 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.04 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 37.015 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 54.898 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 29.732 years
Rate of Natural Increase 24.354

Ethiopia Population by Year (Historical)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate

Ethiopia Population by Year (Projections)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects (2017 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.
  2. GeoNames Gazetteer