Former USSR Countries 2019

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, also known as the Soviet Union or the USSR, was a socialist union in Eurasia. First established in 1922, the USSR was made up of national Soviet republics with a centralized economy and government. All of Northern Asia and most of Eastern Europe were part of the USSR. The USSR was governed by the Communist Party.

During its existence, the USSR was the largest country in the world based on area at over 8.6 million square miles. In the late 1980s, the population had risen to over 288 million, making it the third most populous nation in the world, with approximately 80% of residents living in the western European region of the USSR.

The official language of the USSR was Russian, although there were other regional languages recognized, including Georgian, Uzbek, Latvian, Ukrainian, and Estonian, just to name a few. There were also a few minority languages such as Finnish, German, Tatar, and Korean. About 70% of the population was East Slav, while 12% were Turkic. The remaining 18% was made up of other ethnic groups.

The treaty to establish the USSR was first signed in 1922. This occurred after Vladimir Lenin overthrew the Russian Provisional Government. After Lenin’s death in 1924, Joseph Stalin came to rule over the region and adopted the ideology of Marxism-Leninism, which he created. During Stalin’s rule, a command economy was established, leading to collectivization and Industrialization.

In the late 1930s, the USSR signed a pact with Nazi Germany, which later collapsed when Germany attacked the region. This led to one of the largest battles in history.

It was in the later 1980s when the republics of the Soviet Union began to take steps to declare their sovereignty. By 1991, all republics with the exception of Russia and Kazakhstan declared their independence. In December of that year, the Belavezha Accord was signed by the presidents of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine which dissolved the USSR. A few weeks later, representatives of Soviet republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol to confirm the accords. On December 25, 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned from his role as the president of the USSR and declared the office to be extinct.

During its history, there were 15 Soviet Socialist Republics, or SSRs. Those were:

Rank Flag Name Population 2019 Area Area (mi²) % of Earth's Area Growth Rate Region Subregion
1Russia145,872,25617,098,242 km²6,599,921 mi²11.52%0.09%EuropeEastern Europe
2Ukraine43,993,638603,500 km²232,951 mi²0.41%-0.57%EuropeEastern Europe
3Uzbekistan32,981,716447,400 km²172,696 mi²0.30%1.56%AsiaCentral Asia
4Kazakhstan18,551,4272,724,900 km²1,051,811 mi²1.84%1.27%AsiaCentral Asia
5Azerbaijan10,047,71886,600 km²33,428 mi²< 0.1%0.99%AsiaWestern Asia
6Belarus9,452,411207,600 km²80,134 mi²0.14%-0.00%EuropeEastern Europe
7Tajikistan9,321,018143,100 km²55,237 mi²< 0.1%2.42%AsiaCentral Asia
8Turkmenistan5,942,089488,100 km²188,407 mi²0.33%1.56%AsiaCentral Asia
9Georgia3,996,76569,700 km²26,904 mi²< 0.1%-0.15%AsiaWestern Asia
10Armenia2,957,73129,743 km²11,481 mi²< 0.1%0.20%AsiaWestern Asia
11Lithuania2,759,62765,300 km²25,206 mi²< 0.1%-1.49%EuropeNorthern Europe
12Latvia1,906,74364,559 km²24,920 mi²< 0.1%-1.13%EuropeNorthern Europe
13Estonia1,325,64845,227 km²17,458 mi²< 0.1%0.21%EuropeNorthern Europe