Greenland Population 2017

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Greenland is the 12th largest country in the world in terms of area, but its population is just 57,000 in 2015 with a population density of only 0.026 people per square kilometer, which ranks 244th in the world (the least densely populated country). Most Greenlanders live in the fjords in the southwest of the main island, where the climate is milder.

Cities in Greenland

The largest city and capital of Greenland is Nuuk, which has a population of more than 16,000. Nuuk is one of the smallest capital cities in the world in terms of population. The name Nuuk is actually a Kalaallisut word for "cape," which refers to the city's position at the end of the Nuup Kangerlua fjord. Nuuk is also the northernmost capital in the world.

Other major cities in Greenland include Sisimiut (pop: 6,000) and Ilulissat (pop: 4,500). All other cities and towns have a population of less than 4,000.

Greenland Demographics

Greenland has a population of just shy of 57,000. 88% of Greelanders are Greenlandic Inuit, which includes mixed persons. The rest of are white European descent, mostly Greenland Danes. There are also thousands of Greenlandic Inuit in Denmark proper. Most Greenlanders are Lutheran.

In Greenlandic (or Kallallisut), the country is Kalaallit Nunaat, or "land of the Kalaallit," who are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people who live in the western part of the country.

The languages of Danish and Greenlandic have been used officially since the country established home rule in 1979 and most people can speak both languages, although Kalaallisut became the only official language in 2009. Danish remains the most widely used language in the country's administration and higher education.

Greenland has the highest suicide rate in the world and the nation faces other pressing social issues, including high rates of alcoholism, HIV, and unemployment.

Greenland History

Greenland was home to many Paleo-Eskimo people in prehistoric times, with the first settlement in the area occurring around 2500 BC. Around 986 AD, the west coast of Greenland was settled by Norwegians and Icelanders through the arrival of 14 boats led by Erik the Red. This group created three settlements known as the Eastern Settlement, the Western Settlement and the Ivituut, or Middle Settlement, on fjords. The island was shared with the late Dorset culture and the Thule culture to the north.

The settlements thrived for a long time but eventually disappeared in the 1400s, likely due to the declining temperatures with onset of the Little Ice Age, famine and increasing conflicts with the local Inuit peoples.

In 1500, King Manuel I of Portugal sent an explorer, Corte-Real, to Greenland looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia. Corte-Real found the sea frozen and headed south, arriving in Newfoundland and Labrador and supplying new information about Greenland's southern coastline.

In the early 17th century, King Christian IV of Denmark sent expeditions to Greenland to find the lost eastern Norse settlement and reestablish Danish sovereignty over the island. The expeditions were largely unsuccessful. While the Norse settlements died off and the area came under control of the Inuit groups, Denmark never relinquished its claims to the island that it inherited from the Norwegians, asserting its sovereignty over the island in the 18th century.

The Treaty of Kiel in 1814 dissolved the union between Norway and Denmark and Norway occupied the eastern coast of Greenland as Erik the Red's Land in 1931. Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940, severing the island's connection to Denmark. A year later, the United States occupied the island to defend it from invasion from Germany, and this occupation continued until 1945.

The U.S. was allowed to reestablish its air base on the island in 1950 and its colonial status ended when the island was incorporated as a country in 1953, which gave Danish citizenship to Greenlanders. Greenlanders were recognized as separate people under international law in 2009.

Greenland Facts

  • Greenland is the largest island in the world, with more than 75% of its land area covered by the only contemporary ice sheet outside of Antarctica.
  • Greenland is the world's least densely populated country.
  • The name Greenland comes from early Scandinavian settlers. It is said that Erik the Red moved to the region after being exiled from Iceland for manslaughter and named the region Greenland in hopes the nice name would attract more people.
  • The capital, Nuuk, is one of the world's smallest capital cities by population and the world's northernmost country capital.

Greenland Population in 2017 Source: Oliver Schauf

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Greenland Population Growth

Greenland is currently experiencing negative population growth of -0.1% annually, with a fertility rate of 2.1 births per woman, which is below the replacement level.

Greenland Population Density

About Greenland

Official Name Greenland
Languages Spoken Greenlandic
Borders
Is Landlocked No
Latitude/Longitude 72,-40
Currencies Used DKK

Greenland Population History

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Density Rank Growth Rate World Rank
2017 56,239 0% 0% 229 0.12% 207
2015 56,186 0% 0% 229 0.02% 206
2010 56,546 0% 0% 229 -0.19% 205
2005 56,953 0% 0% 229 0.01% 207
2000 56,174 0% 0% 229 0.28% 207
1995 55,809 0% 0% 228 0.04% 206
1990 55,603 0% 0% 228 0.33% 204
1985 53,188 0% 0% 228 1.14% 204
1980 50,176 0% 0% 227 0.82% 204
1975 49,582 0% 0% 226 0.41% 203
1970 46,075 0% 0% 225 2.39% 203
1965 37,963 0% 0% 223 4.26% 204
1960 31,238 0% 0% 222 3.88% 205
1955 25,845 0% 0% 221 3.36% 204
1950 22,998 0% 0% 221 2.03% 204

Greenland Population Projections

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Density Rank Growth Rate World Rank
2020 56,458 0% 0% 229 0.13% 207
2025 56,739 0% 0% 229 0% 207
2030 56,516 0% 0% 229 -0.18% 208
2035 55,839 0% 0% 229 -0.32% 209
2040 54,832 0% 0% 229 -0.41% 209
2045 53,652 0% 0% 229 -0.46% 209
2050 52,413 0% 0% 229 -0.46% 209
2055 51,233 0% 0% 229 -0.44% 211
2060 50,117 0% 0% 229 -0.44% 211
2065 49,031 0% 0% 229 -0.45% 212
2070 47,920 0% 0% 229 -0.48% 212
2075 46,763 0% 0% 229 -0.5% 213
2080 45,578 0% 0% 229 -0.52% 213
2085 44,411 0% 0% 229 -0.52% 214
2090 43,292 0% 0% 229 -0.5% 214
2095 42,229 0% 0% 229 -0.49% 214
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations