The World Bank defines a high-income country as one that has a gross national income per capita exceeding $12,056. The gross national income (GNI) is calculated by adding gross domestic product to factor incomes from foreign residents, then subtracting income earned by nonresidents. Both developed and developed countries may be classified as high-income countries.
In 2019, there are 81 countries and territories classified by the World Bank as high-income countries. Some of these countries, such as the United States, have held this classification consistently since the 1980s. Other nations, like Saudi Arabia, have held the classification, dropped off the list, and have now reappeared. Some countries, such as Russia and Venezuela, have been classified as high-income in the past but no longer hold that distinction.