India Population 2016

India, located in South Asia, is bordered by the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, Pakistan, Bhutan, China, Nepal, Burma, and Bangladesh. India is the world's 7th largest country by area and the second-most populous with more than 1.2 billion residents. It's also the most populous democratic country in the world. The most recent estimate gives India a population of 1.29 billion in 2015.

The country as a whole has a population density of 384 people per square kilometer (994/square mile), which ranks 31st in the world. In Mumbai, however, the population density is 21,000 people per square kilometer (54,000/square mile).

Largest Cities in India

India's largest city is Mumbai, with a population of 12.5 million, closely followed by Delhi, with a population of 11 million. Overall, there are more than 50 urban areas in India with a population of more than one million people.

Mumbai, which used to be called Bombay, has an official population of 12,478,447, although its wider metropolitan area is much larger - home to 18,414,288 people. It has more than doubled in size in the past forty years – in the 1971 census its population was recorded as 5.9 million – although growth has slowed dramatically in the past decade. Overall population density in the city is 20,482 people per square kilometer.

Delhi, India's second most populous city is home to 11,007,835 people, and its metro area contains 16,314,838 people. Growth in Delhi is even more rapid than Mumbai's, and it is likely that it will overtake Mumbai to become the largest city in India within a decade. The city has struggled to keep up with growth, though – more than half of its residents live in slums, and the city's poverty rate is four times the national average. Contained within Delhi’s boundaries is the city of New Delhi, an enclave city which is the official capital city of India. It has a population of 249,998 people.

Other major cities in India are Bengaluru (pop: 8.43 million), Hyderabad (pop: 6.81 million) and Ahmedabad (pop: 5.57 million). There are 53 cities in India with a population of at least 1 million.

Largest States in India

There are twenty-eight states in India. Their populations range massively in size – the largest holds almost 200 million people, the smallest just over half a million.

India’s largest state is Uttar Pradesh which, with a population of 199,581,520 in 2011, is larger than most countries in the world. If it were a country in its own right, it would be the fifth largest in the world, sandwiched between Indonesia (237 million) and Brazil (192 million).

Two other Indian states are home to more than 100 million people - Maharashta (pop: 112.4 million) and Bihar (pop: 103.8 million). The smallest state in India is Sikkim (pop: 607,688).

India Demographics

Data on ethnicity is not collected by the Indian census, although the CIA World Factbook estimates the population is 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, and 3% Mongoloid and other.

Hinduism is the most common language in India, accounting for 80% of the population. Islam is the second-largest religion at 13% of the population. Other major religious groups in India are Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%) and Jains (0.4%).

Data about the number of people without religion or the number of atheists in India is not collected, largely because the Indian concept of religion is rather different to concepts of religions held in much of the rest of the world – for example, the main religions in India are able to embrace atheism among their members. People who claimed no religion are officially recorded under ‘other’ by the census, but with only 0.6% of Indians fitting within this category, it is not clear how accurate this figure is.

While the number of Indians living in urban areas has increased over the last two decades, about 70% of people still live in rural areas. In 2011, India had a literacy rate of 74%: 82% for men and 65% for women. The literacy rate varies wildly by state, however; Bihar is the least literate with a rate of 64%.

2011 India Census

The 2011 census was the second largest the world has ever seen – second only to China’s census the previous year. It took place in two phases. The first phase, in April 2010, counted all of the buildings in India, and the second phase collected data about the people of India.

The census was a massive exercise, employing millions of Indians. The total cost of the census came to $439 million which, although it seems massive, was actually considerably cheaper per person than most censuses held around the world – the average census costs over $4 per person, whereas the census in India cost just $.50 per person.

The 2011 census was the fifteenth nationwide census carried out in India. The first was held in 1872, although it was not able to cover all of British-held Indian territory. The first comprehensive nationwide census was carried out under the auspices of Lord Ripon, the British Viceroy of India at the time, and counted a population of 288 million in 1881. Since then, a census has been held every ten years in India.

India Population Clock

What is the population of India (as of [[date]])? [[getCurrentPopulation()]]
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2016) [[getLastEstimate()]]
Births Per Day 353,026
Deaths Per Day 134,685
Net Migrations Per Day -5,167
Net Change Per Day 213,174
Population Change Since January 1st [[getPopChangeThisYear()]]
  • Net [[getIncreaseOrDecrease()]] of 1 person every [[getDurationPerPerson()]]

  • Population estimated based on interpolation of World Population Prospects data.

India Population Indicators

Indicator Value World Ranking
Crude Birth Rate 19.09 births/thousand 86th
Crude Death Rate 7.283 deaths/thousand 103rd
Crude Net Migration Rate -0.279 people/thousand 95th
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 69.08 years 133rd
Life Expectancy (Male) 67.65 years 119th
Life Expectancy (Female) 70.64 years 135th
Total Fertility Rate 2.343 children/woman 85th
Net Reproduction Rate 1.039 surviving daughters/woman 95th
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.106 males per female 4th
Infant Mortality Rate 33.918 deaths/1,000 live births 55th
Under Five Mortality 43.366 deaths/thousand 55th
Mean Age at Childbearing 26.271 years 187th

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision)

India Population Growth

While India's population growth has slowed remarkably over the last few years, it's still growing faster than China and it's expected to ">surpass China in population by 2028, when both will have about 1.45 billion people.

India Population History

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2016 1,326,801,576 687,626,347 639,175,229 446 1.1772%
2015 1,311,050,527 679,548,408 631,502,119 440 1.1942%
2010 1,230,984,504 638,354,760 592,629,744 414 1.3284%
2005 1,144,326,293 593,103,531 551,222,762 384 1.5403%
2000 1,053,481,071 545,690,636 507,790,436 354 1.7322%
1995 960,874,982 497,499,178 463,375,804 323 1.8984%
1990 870,601,776 450,559,907 420,041,869 292 2.0366%
1985 782,085,127 404,816,408 377,268,719 263 2.2157%
1980 697,229,745 361,086,783 336,142,962 234 2.3154%
1975 621,703,641 322,145,793 299,557,848 209 2.3022%
1970 553,943,226 286,815,115 267,128,111 186 2.2601%
1965 497,920,270 257,473,868 240,446,402 167 2.0834%
1960 449,661,874 232,025,891 217,635,983 151 1.9882%
1955 409,280,196 210,611,639 198,668,557 137 1.8138%
1950 376,325,205 193,108,100 183,217,105 126 1.5572%

India Population Projections

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2020 1,388,858,917 719,387,165 669,471,752 467 1.0759%
2025 1,461,625,234 756,312,822 705,312,412 491 0.9397%
2030 1,527,657,988 789,428,860 738,229,128 513 0.7986%
2035 1,585,349,852 817,976,939 767,372,913 533 0.6547%
2040 1,633,727,671 841,351,944 792,375,728 549 0.5276%
2045 1,673,618,767 860,256,793 813,361,974 562 0.4162%
2050 1,705,332,544 875,016,663 830,315,881 573 0.3176%
2055 1,729,354,060 886,166,281 843,187,779 581 0.2212%
2060 1,745,182,406 893,441,103 851,741,303 586 0.1235%
2065 1,752,843,331 896,765,946 856,077,385 589 0.0389%
2070 1,753,603,938 897,102,287 856,501,651 589 -0.0371%
2075 1,747,945,832 894,527,385 853,418,447 587 -0.1018%
2080 1,737,150,045 889,622,195 847,527,850 584 -0.1567%
2085 1,722,039,440 882,959,258 839,080,182 579 -0.1967%
2090 1,704,072,951 875,151,678 828,921,274 573 -0.2307%
2095 1,683,339,045 865,910,319 817,428,726 566 -0.2657%
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations