Mongolia Population 2018

3,120,236

Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia, and the region has been ruled by many nomadic empires over its history, including Genghis Khan, who founded the Mongol Empire. In 2015, estimates put the population at 2,992,908 people, while this number been estimated to be 3.12 million in 2018.

According to data from the CIA World Factbook, Mongolia has a population exceeding 2.9 million. Data from the National Statistical Office of Mongolia suggests that in 2018, the population has surpassed 3.12 million, which would place the country as only the 138th most populous in the world. Mongolia is the 19th largest country by area at 1.566 million square kilometers, and because of its smaller population, it is considered to be the most sparsely populated sovereign country on earth.

Mongolia Population

Approximately 45% of the country's population reside in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, boasting a population of 1.34 million according to data from 2008. This city is the only one in the country that has a population of more than 100,000. Erdenet, Mongolia's 2nd-largest city, has a population of just around 95,000.

The population of the country as a whole is relatively young, with the average age being 27.5 years. About 59% of Mongolia's residents are under the age of 30, while over a quarter of that population is under the age of 14. The young population, coupled with a growth rate of 1.31%, has put a strain on the country's economy.

Mongolia Demographics

Nearly 95% of the population is comprised of ethnic Mongols, consisting of the Khalkha and other groups distinguished by dialects of the language. The Khalkha people make up 86% of the ethnic Mongols in the country, and the remaining 14% is comprised of Oirats, Buryats and a few others. Turkic people account for 4.5% of the population, with the remaining 0.5% being people of Russia, Chinese, Korea and the United States.

The official language of the country is Mongolian, which is spoken by approximately 95% of the population. The primary religions practiced in the country include Buddhism, Shamanism, and Islam. The total fertility rate is estimated to be between 2.2 and 2.3 children per woman, which has stabilized following a steep decline in the period between 2000 and 2005. It's estimated that 32% of the population lives below the poverty line, with one-quarter of Mongolians living on less than $1.25 US a day.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 8 minutes
One death every 27 minutes
One net migrant every 180 minutes
Net gain of one person every 11 minutes

Mongolia Population in 2018Source: By Peter1170 [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Mongolia Population Pyramid 2018

0k10k20k30k40kMongolia Male Population0k10k20k30k40kMongolia Female Population10095908580757065605550454035302520151050

Mongolia Median Age

27.9


Total

27.1


Male

28.7


Female

Mongolia Population by Age

There are 2,035,456 adults in Mongolia.

Census Years

Year Date
20202020
201017 November 2010
200011 January 2000
19895 January 1989

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Mongolia Population Growth

Mongolia's population is currently growing at a rate of 1.5% a year. The country's demographics resemble other developing countries with declining fertility rates with increasing lifespans. It's estimated the population will reach 3.5 million by 2030.

About Mongolia

Official NameMongolia
Languages SpokenMongolian
Is LandlockedYes
Latitude/Longitude46105
Currencies UsedMongolia Tughrik
DemonymMongolian

Countries Bordering Mongolia

China
Russia

Mongolia Population Density

Mongolia Top 20 Cities by Population

Name Population
Ulan Bator844,818
Erdenet79,647
Darhan74,300
Khovd30,500
OElgii28,400
Ulaangom28,085
Hovd27,924
Murun-kuren27,690
Bayanhongor26,252
Arvayheer25,622
Suhbaatar24,235
Bayanhongor23,234
Saynshand19,891
Dzuunharaa18,830
Zuunmod17,630
Bulgan17,348
Uliastay16,240
Baruun-Urt15,805
Altai15,800
Mandalgovi15,430

Mongolia Population Clock

The population of Mongolia (as of 6/18/2018)?3,120,236
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2018)3,121,772
Births Per Day190
Deaths Per Day54
Net Migrations Per Day -8
Net Change Per Day 128
Population Change Since January 1st21,632

Mongolia Population Indicators

IndicatorValue
Crude Birth Rate 22.381 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 6.377 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate -0.97 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 69.5 years
Male Life Expectancy 65.47 years
Female Life Expectancy 73.76 years
Total Fertility Rate 2.663 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 1.271 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.03 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 18.631 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 23.039 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 29.263 years
Rate of Natural Increase 16.004

Mongolia Population by Year (Historical)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20183,121,77249.44%50.56%2.001371.50%
20173,075,64749.47%50.53%1.971371.59%
20163,027,39849.49%50.51%1.941371.70%
20152,976,87749.51%50.49%1.901371.88%
20102,712,65049.62%50.38%1.731411.43%
20052,526,44649.75%50.25%1.621391.05%
20002,397,43649.87%50.13%1.531390.85%
19952,298,03949.54%50.46%1.471391.02%
19902,184,14549.37%50.63%1.401362.59%
19851,921,88149.33%50.67%1.231392.61%
19801,689,62249.31%50.69%1.081392.69%
19751,479,65149.29%50.71%0.951392.96%
19701,278,82549.25%50.75%0.821402.93%
19651,107,12449.22%50.78%0.711412.99%
1960955,50549.17%50.83%0.611402.25%
1955855,10349.22%50.78%0.551401.85%
1950780,19949.15%50.85%0.501400.00%

Mongolia Population by Year (Projections)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20203,209,40449.39%50.61%2.051370.00%
20253,402,25849.25%50.75%2.181371.17%
20303,560,95949.09%50.91%2.281360.92%
20353,698,05848.94%51.06%2.361330.76%
20403,827,00448.80%51.20%2.451310.69%
20453,953,99348.69%51.31%2.531330.66%
20504,075,38248.64%51.36%2.611330.61%
20554,176,78448.63%51.37%2.671330.49%
20604,250,13448.64%51.36%2.721330.35%
20654,301,95748.67%51.33%2.751340.24%
20704,344,68048.73%51.27%2.781340.20%
20754,387,60748.82%51.18%2.811340.20%
20804,434,04848.93%51.07%2.831330.21%
20854,479,50449.04%50.96%2.861330.20%
20904,515,68349.11%50.89%2.891330.16%
20954,536,34549.16%50.84%2.901330.09%
Data Sources
  1. Mongolian National Statistical Office
  2. World Population Prospects (2017 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with censuses from 1956 through 2010, with official estimate for 2016, and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration. Recent official estimates include Mongolian citizens living abroad from more than 6 months.

  3. GeoNames Gazetteer