Most Diverse Countries 2019

Determining what countries are the most culturally diverse is a challenge. There are a variety of factors that contribute to diversity, which is why there’s not a single comprehensive list. However, there are a few lists that are commonly used to measure the cultural diversity of countries across the nation to determine which are the most diverse.

One list is known as the Fearon list. This is named for James Fearon, a professor at Stanford University. This list takes a look at the similarities between languages spoken in a nation. A higher score is given to nations that speak two or more unrelated languages, while a lower score indicates that most or all of the nation speaks the same language. This list has been criticized for focusing on linguistic variations instead of considering genetic diversity and other factors.

Based on the last list from 2003, the most ethnically diverse nation is Papua New Guinea, which was the only nation to receive a score of 1 – the highest score. Coming in second was Tanzania, with the Democratic Republic of Congo ranking third. The top 10 most ethnically and culturally diverse nations based on the Fearon analysis are:

Another list is the Alesina list. This list is named for Alberto Alesina, a political economist. This list considers factors beyond just languages, such as religion and ethnicity. Based on this list, the most diverse nation based on ethnicity is Uganda. Other nations that received high rankings for ethnicity include:

  • Liberia
  • Madagascar
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Congo
  • Cameroon
  • Chad
  • Kenya

Based on linguistics, Uganda was found to be the most diverse. Additional nations that received high rankings include:

  • Liberia
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Cameroon
  • Kenya
  • Zambia

Based on religious diversity, South Africa was the most diverse nation. Additional nations at the top of this list include:

* Greenberg's diversity index (Linguistic diversity index) gives the probability of two people selected at random from any one country speaking the same language.
Country Greenberg's Diversity Index Neighbors' Greenberg's Diversity Index Population 2019
Chad0.85140.68315,946,876
Cameroon0.84260.710525,876,380
Nigeria0.83060.7548200,963,599
Togo0.81180.66158,082,366
Dr Congo0.81110.500986,790,567
Kenya0.80910.428652,573,973
Guinea Bissau0.78570.69441,920,922
Republic Of The Congo0.77640.7610001015,380,508
Ivory Coast0.77230.691925,716,544
Liberia0.76940.65114,937,374
Gambia0.76660.67062,347,706
Central African Republic0.74140.79554,745,185
Gabon0.73790.64812,172,579
Tanzania0.73530.493258,005,463
South Africa0.72890.358758,558,270
Guinea0.71820.688812,771,246
Suriname0.71080.2659581,372
Sudan0.69610.528642,813,238
Canada0.69240.27837,411,047
Qatar0.68680.182,832,067
Benin0.68450.733311,801,151
Pakistan0.6820.4994216,565,318
Angola0.67210.701431,825,295
Mali0.67180.62219,658,031
Senegal0.67060.705316,296,364
Zambia0.66810.618717,861,030
Bolivia0.66710.184811,513,100
Mozambique0.65770.515830,366,036
Burkina Faso0.65010.705220,321,378
Ghana0.650.744730,417,856
Afghanistan0.64780.422238,041,754
Indonesia0.64730.4298270,625,568
Belize0.64360.5265390,353
Niger0.64090.621823,310,715
Micronesia0.63880113,815
India0.63670.41231,366,417,754
United Arab Emirates0.62460.29519,770,529
Monaco0.60250.379938,964
Andorra0.60220.330877,142
Kazakhstan0.59760.279518,551,427
Philippines0.58940108,116,615
Malaysia0.58770.547931,949,777
Malawi0.58580.68718,628,747
Mauritania0.58430.55334,525,696
Peru0.57680.284532,510,453
Bhutan0.57510.3873763,092
Iran0.5750.374182,913,906
Nepal0.57180.387328,608,710
Namibia0.55010.6092,494,530
Fiji0.54590889,953
Eritrea0.54580.57553,497,117
Mexico0.54180.4776127,575,529
Belgium0.53740.281411,539,328
Kuwait0.53070.27144,207,083
Djibouti0.52350.3873973,560
Guyana0.51980.254782,766
Latvia0.51680.30141,906,743
Moldova0.51360.31624,043,263
Guatemala0.51120.372117,581,472
Ethiopia0.50670.5368112,078,730
Brunei0.50070.5877433,285
Switzerland0.4960.21028,591,365
Thailand0.49580.432669,625,582
Myanmar0.48890.347554,045,420
Tajikistan0.48860.37929,321,018
Estonia0.48350.37611,325,648
Georgia0.48180.2173,996,765
Ecuador0.480.327117,373,662
Trinidad And Tobago0.478301,394,973
Luxembourg0.47820.3599615,729
Sierra Leone0.46280.74387,813,215
Bahrain0.457601,641,172
Jordan0.45580.306610,101,694
Laos0.4490.31257,169,455
Morocco0.44450.299636,471,769
Mauritius0.43501,269,668
Palau0.4301018,008
Oman0.41010.40234,974,986
Sri Lanka0.4074021,323,733
Syria0.40080.307617,070,135
New Zealand0.392604,783,063
Singapore0.385705,804,337
France0.37990.405365,129,728
Kyrgyzstan0.37470.39516,415,850
Botswana0.3670.53252,303,697
Uganda0.3630.588944,269,594
Iraq0.36270.408739,309,783
Uzbekistan0.35640.480432,981,716
Bulgaria0.35270.34187,000,119
Libya0.34660.45416,777,452
Ukraine0.33490.270743,993,638
Liechtenstein0.32750.297738,019
Equatorial Guinea0.32520.79031,355,986
Zimbabwe0.31870.60540010114,645,468
Algeria0.31750.454543,053,054
Mongolia0.31010.18663,225,167
Turkey0.310.334183,429,615
Romania0.29750.361519,364,557
Madagascar0.2943026,969,307
Turkmenistan0.29320.54425,942,089
Lithuania0.29010.27482,759,627
Israel0.2830.29068,519,377
Spain0.28160.367946,736,776
San Marino0.28080.08233,860
United States0.2780.6171329,064,917
Papua New Guinea0.27180.64738,776,109
Bahamas0.26420389,482
Taiwan0.2487023,773,876
Russia0.23530.2794145,872,256
Vietnam0.2350.26496,462,106
Slovakia0.23090.15875,457,013
Jamaica0.220802,948,279
Panama0.21760.0679010014,246,439
Croatia0.21020.21814,130,304
Albania0.20860.32212,880,917
Cambodia0.20490.393316,486,542
Azerbaijan0.20320.344310,047,718
Seychelles0.2009097,739
Lesotho0.20070.72892,125,268
Belarus0.19650.30559,452,411
Chile0.18610.414618,952,038
Saudi Arabia0.180.511834,268,528
Egypt0.17930.4419100,388,073
El Salvador0.17810.31816,453,553
Greece0.17680.334710,473,455
Tuvalu0.1629011,646
Germany0.16250.27283,517,045
Poland0.15060.215737,887,768
Hungary0.14920.25389,684,679
Paraguay0.1490.22647,044,636
Slovenia0.14610.13522,078,654
Denmark0.14220.16255,771,876
China0.13790.42631,433,783,686
Lebanon0.12620.34196,855,713
Honduras0.1250.2619,746,117
Bosnia And Herzegovina0.11990.33383,301,000
Armenia0.11950.39252,957,731
Finland0.11190.11735,532,156
Solomon Islands0.1110669,823
Somalia0.10920.613115,442,905
Netherlands0.10530.349917,097,130
Austria0.09940.20678,955,102
Nicaragua0.09360.09176,545,502
Cyprus0.093301,198,575
Australia0.0929025,203,198
United Kingdom0.09010.086967,530,172
Barbados0.08750287,025
Tonga0.08690104,494
Ireland0.08690.09014,882,495
Italy0.0820.280460,550,075
Colombia0.07740.265150,339,443
Dominica0.0715071,808
Iceland0.06780339,031
Grenada0.06670112,003
Hong Kong0.06207,436,154
Marshall Islands0.06058,791
Czech Republic0.05940.160810,689,209
Costa Rica0.05840.15565,047,561
Sweden0.05830.08510,036,379
Norway0.05810.13525,378,857
Burundi0.05060.515511,530,580
Kiribati0.04910117,606
Portugal0.04510.281610,226,187
Vanuatu0.04050299,882
Venezuela0.03920.20328,515,829
South Korea0.03920.125151,225,308
Tunisia0.03910.332111,694,719
Malta0.02940440,372
Cuba0.0198011,333,483
Bangladesh0.01830.5628163,046,161
Cape Verde0.01380549,935
Brazil0.01190.3045211,049,527
Japan0.01190126,860,301
Samoa0.00780197,097
North Korea0.0020.039225,666,161
Uruguay00.0063,461,734
Rwanda00.4912,626,950
Haiti0011,263,077
Argentina00.202844,780,677
Dominican Republic0010,738,958
Comoros00850,886