Peru Population 2017

32,181,161

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, sits in western South America. The region has a long history of ancient cultures, including some of the oldest in the world, and finally achieved independence in 1821. Today, Peru's population is very multiethnic and in 2016 was estinmated to be around 31.1 million people.

By population, Peru is the 44th largest country, and the fourth largest in South America, outstripped only by Brazil (204.5 million), Colombia (48.5 million) and Argentina (43.1 million).

The current population of Peru in 2016 is estimated at 31,151,643, up from the 2013 estimate of 30,475,144 and its 2007 census figure of 28.2 million.

The law in Peru requires that the Government hold a census every ten years.

In total, there have been 11 censuses held in Peru since the first in 1836. Generally (see the next paragraph for the exception), the data collected is considered fairly reliable.

The last census in Peru was controversially held in 2007, just two years after the 2005 census. The census was officially held because of inaccuracies in the 2005 census, although many felt that the government's decision to re-run the survey was politically motivated. The decision to make everyone stay at home on the day of the census and for most businesses to close caused a great deal of anger, and was estimated to have cost the country up to $250 million.

If the law is upheld, the next census in Peru should be held by 2017 at the latest.

Based on the latest figures, Peru's 2016 population is estimated at 31,151,643. Its current population density is just 23 people per square kilometer (or 57/square mile), which makes it the 191st densely populated country.

Peru Population History

Peru is a very multiethnic country and its population has been formed by various groups for more than 500 years. The area was inhabited by Amerindians for thousands of years prior to the Spanish Conquest in the 1500s, and their population decreased from 5 to 9 million in the beginning of the 16th century to just 600,000 one hundred years later due to infectious disease. Spaniards and Africans then moved into the area, mixing with each other and indigenous people of the region, with European immigration from Italy, Germany, Britain and France following behind. Peru freed its black slaves in 1854, then Chinese immigrants began moving into the region to replace the slave workers.

Peru Demographics

The last census in Peru that attempted to classify its population by ethnicity occurred in 1940, at which point 53% of the population was white or mestizo (white and Amerindian ancestry) with 46% Amerindian. The CIA World Factbook cites the majority of Peruvians as Amerindians, particularly Aymara and Quechua, followed by mestizo people.

In 2006, a survey from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica (INEI), Peruvians self-identified as mestizo (59.5%), Quechua (22.7%), Aymara (2.7%), Amazonian (1.8%), Black/Mulatto (1.6%), white (4.9%) and other (6.7%).

There are estimated to be 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru as of 2016.

The further inland, the higher the density of the Amerindian population. The original Amerindian population was devastated by the arrival of colonists from Spain in the 1520s and dropped from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 a century later. The catastrophe was caused by a mixture of smallpox, to which Amerindians had no natural immunity, war and the economic chaos that followed the collapse of the Inca Empire.

Europeans are largely descendants of Spanish and Italian settlers, but following waves of settlers from other European nations also left their mark and there are many descendants of British, German and even Croatian colonists. The highest proportion of Europeans can be found in the northern highlands, in coastal areas and in Peru's major cities.

Asian Peruvian numbers are unclear – the source used in the box above gives figures of both 1% and 3% of the population. The bulk of Peru's Asian population is descended from Chinese and Japanese immigrants. Notably, Alberto Fujimori, Peru’s scandal hit President from 1990 to 2000 was of Japanese descent.

Afro-Peruvians make up around 1-2% of the population and are largely descended from slaves transported to Peru in the 18th and 19th centuries. Like the descendants of European colonists, Afro-Peruvians are largely concentrated in the coastal cities.

Language in Peru

Although Spanish is the official language of Peru, used nationwide, indigenous languages also have official status in areas where they are widely used. Quechua is used widely, particularly in Eastern Peru, and is therefore often quoted as Peru’s second official language. In effect the number of official languages has been limited to two for many years. However, recently Aymara was made an official language in the Puno region in South Eastern Peru.

As well as the official languages listed above, around 150 other indigenous languages are known to be spoken in Peru today (although the exact number cannot be determined as there are still a number of un-contacted or rarely contacted tribes in the country).

Today Spanish is spoken by more than 80% of Peruvians and Quechua by 16%. As its urban population increased in the second half of the twentieth century, Peru saw a steady shift toward speaking Spanish. Recently, though, an increased effort has been made to promote the teaching and usage of indigenous languages, so it is possible they will see a resurgence in use.

Largest Cities in Peru

The largest city in Peru is its capital city, Lima. It is home to more than a quarter of Peruvians and the country's largest city by far with a population of over 8 million.

The city of Lima proper is, according to 2016 estimates, home to 8,852,000 people. This makes it the 20th largest city in the world, equivalent more or less to London.

Lima's wider metropolitan area is home to 9,886,866 people, making it the fourth largest in South America. The only larger cities are Sao Paolo (Brazil, 21 million), Buenos Aires (Argentina, 13.6 million) and Rio de Janiero (Brazil, 12.2 million).

Peru Population in 2017Source:

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Peru Population Growth

After a very long period of decline in the country, with its population dropping steadily from the 1960s until just a few years ago, Peru is finally seeing positive growth. According to some estimates, Peru could sustain an average growth rate of 5.5% for 40 years and jump to the 26th most populous country from its current rank of 42nd.

Peru is one of the 26 fastest growing countries, and its population is predicted to reach almost 42 million by 2050.

About Peru

Official NameRepublic of Peru
Languages SpokenAymara, Spanish, Quechua
BordersBOL, BRA, CHL, COL, ECU
Is LandlockedNo
Latitude/Longitude-10-76
Currencies UsedPEN

Peru Population Density

Name Population
Tambo5,032
Carhuaz5,044
Tinyahuarco5,066
Huasahuasi5,146
Yungay5,269
Ayabaca5,270
San Miguel de Cauri5,326
Desaguadero5,329
Salitral5,385
Urcos5,479
Papayal5,484
Ramon Castilla5,495
Caleta de Carquin5,514
Pampas5,521
San Jeronimo5,609
Orcopampa5,643
Yura5,686
San Bartolo5,733
San Pedro de Cajas5,758
Pueblo Nuevo5,766
Barranca5,779
Asentamiento Humano Nicolas de Pierola5,800
Huayucachi5,827
Anta5,859
Palpa5,883
Bernal5,916
Yanahuanca5,992
Lluta5,998
San Agustin5,998
Macusani6,044
Jayanca6,126
Sayan6,196
Vegueta6,219
Oyon6,276
Bellavista6,320
Oyotun6,330
Punta de Bombon6,336
Santa Eulalia6,406
Quilmana6,442
Pangoa6,638
Morrope6,662
Picota6,697
Huicungo6,757
Santiago de Chuco6,759
Acolla6,805
Mazamari6,826
Sicaya6,842
Perene6,844
Ambo6,865
San Juan Bautista6,871
Tucume7,043
Torata7,054
Jepelacio7,150
Cajaruro7,281
Juli7,309
Talavera7,381
Coracora7,420
San Jose7,434
Villa Rica7,448
Mochumi7,460
Urubamba7,540
Pacocha7,588
Hacienda Huancane7,831
Los Aquijes7,848
Morococha7,890
San Ignacio7,912
Buenos Aires7,932
Chazuta8,029
Putina8,118
Pilcomay8,169
San Miguel8,400
La Huaca8,468
Huancabamba8,553
Pacanga8,750
San Jeronimo8,772
Cocachacra8,799
San Luis8,862
Campoverde8,945
Yauya9,092
Subtanjalla9,096
Mancora9,101
Aguas Verdes9,106
Carhuamayo9,122
Calca9,179
Lagunas9,197
Quiruvilca9,226
El Alto9,303
Las Lomas9,450
San Jose de Sisa9,477
Ilabaya9,492
Olmos9,800
Reque9,808
Chupaca9,877
Salaverry10,066
Otuzco10,134
Santiago10,449
Puquio10,491
Santa Rosa10,625
Soritor10,858
Caras10,926
Villa Tupac Amaru11,159
Concepcion11,330
Puerto Supe11,450
Oxapampa12,000
Zorritos12,261
Morropon12,307
Pueblo Nuevo12,471
Atuncolla12,654
Chilca12,884
Vice12,915
Azangaro13,290
Bambamarca13,351
Cajabamba13,486
Pativilca13,583
Motupe13,681
Eten13,693
Lamas13,693
Supe13,719
Contamana13,885
Ascope14,015
Puerto Santa14,066
Salinera Colan14,210
Chota14,240
Celendin14,660
San Ramon14,708
Tabalosos14,744
Santa Maria14,853
Saposoa14,894
Chicama14,915
Coishco15,083
Bellavista15,231
Junin15,320
Minas de Marcona15,478
Satipo15,532
Pimentel15,552
San Clemente15,815
Ilave16,033
Chongoyape16,061
Yunguyo16,140
Huarmey16,172
San Pedro de Lloc16,250
Camana16,434
Zarumilla16,907
Mala17,260
Andahuaylas17,444
La Breita17,693
Uchiza17,742
Huanta18,627
Ayaviri19,310
Chachapoyas20,279
Bagua Grande20,382
Huaura20,723
Viru20,774
Jauja21,057
Paijan21,128
Huamachuco21,768
Santiago de Cao21,982
Moche22,581
Sechura23,020
Yanacancha23,175
Nazca23,556
Laredo24,691
Rioja25,057
Santa Ana25,145
Guadalupe25,376
Querecotillo25,396
San Vicente de Canete25,517
Marcavelica25,645
Monsefu25,707
Hualmay26,658
Chancay26,958
La Peca27,045
Paramonga27,631
Chaupimarca28,666
Mollendo28,953
Tocache29,029
Pacasmayo29,165
La Rinconada29,678
Tambo Grande30,033
Nuevo Imperial32,344
Imperial32,344
Chocope32,370
La Oroya33,345
Sicuani33,575
Ferrenafe34,357
La Union34,834
Puerto Maldonado37,543
Juanjui37,715
Tambopata38,966
Zana39,200
Huancavelica41,576
Yurimaguas41,827
Chepen41,992
Picsi43,610
Lambayeque43,710
Moyobamba44,276
Barranca46,290
Tarma51,350
Jaen52,493
Tingo Maria53,177
Ilo53,476
Moquegua54,517
Huacho54,545
Abancay55,111
Paita56,151
Catacaos57,304
Pisco61,869
Huaral62,174
San Isidro68,309
Chulucanas68,835
Cerro de Pasco78,910
Huaraz86,934
Chosica88,606
Talara99,074
Tumbes109,223
Puno116,552
Cajamarca135,000
Ayacucho140,033
Huanuco147,959
Chincha Alta153,076
Sullana160,789
Juliaca245,675
Ica246,844
Surco251,648
Tacna280,098
Pucallpa310,750
Cusco312,140
Chimbote316,966
Piura325,466
Huancayo376,657
Iquitos437,620
Chiclayo577,375
Trujillo747,450
Callao813,264
Arequipa841,130
Lima7,737,002

Peru Population Clock

What is the population of Peru (as of 10/16/2017)?32,181,161
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2017)32,166,473
Births Per Day333
Deaths Per Day99
Net Migrations Per Day -98
Net Change Per Day 136
Population Change Since January 1st39,304

Peru Population Indicators

IndicatorValue
Crude Birth Rate 18.914 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 5.611 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate -1.11 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 75.352 years
Male Life Expectancy 72.763 years
Female Life Expectancy 77.995 years
Total Fertility Rate 2.368 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 1.107 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.05 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 15.489 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 24.595 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 28.913 years
Rate of Natural Increase 13.108
Death Before 40 Probability (Total) 5.943%
Death Before 40 Probability (Male) 7.19%
Death Before 40 Probability (Female) 4.635%
Death Before 60 Probability (Total) 14.522%
Death Before 60 Probability (Male) 17.662%
Death Before 60 Probability (Female) 11.342%
Median Age (Total) 27.7 years
Median Age (Female) 28.4 years
Median Age (Male) 26.9 years

Peru Population History

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Growth Rate
201732,166,47349.95%50.05%251.20%
201531,376,67049.95%50.05%251.26%
201029,373,64449.96%50.04%231.31%
200527,610,40649.97%50.03%221.22%
200025,914,87549.97%50.03%201.33%
199524,038,76149.97%50.03%191.66%
199021,826,65849.97%50.03%172.07%
198519,544,95050.00%50.00%152.28%
198017,359,11850.06%49.94%142.47%
197515,229,95150.14%49.86%122.66%
197013,341,07150.22%49.78%102.69%
196511,607,68450.26%49.74%92.83%
196010,061,51950.26%49.74%82.83%
19558,786,75350.25%49.75%72.64%
19507,727,73550.22%49.78%62.51%

Peru Population Projections

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Growth Rate
202033,317,110.999,999,99649.94%50.06%261.12%
202535,151,87149.92%50.08%271.00%
203036,855,23849.91%50.09%290.87%
203538,390,87149.91%50.09%300.74%
204039,753,59949.93%50.07%310.63%
204540,928,32249.96%50.04%320.51%
205041,899,41350.02%49.98%330.40%
205542,655,94950.09%49.91%330.29%
206043,196,14550.18%49.82%340.19%
206543,531,45350.27%49.73%340.10%
207043,672,34850.34%49.66%340.01%
207543,633,32050.39%49.61%34-0.06%
208043,432,16050.43%49.57%34-0.13%
208543,103,50150.46%49.54%34-0.18%
209042,665,46750.48%49.52%33-0.23%
209542,142,44650.49%49.51%33-0.27%
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations