Peru Population 2017

32,341,540

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, sits in western South America. The region has a long history of ancient cultures, including some of the oldest in the world, and finally achieved independence in 1821. Today, Peru's population is very multiethnic and in 2017 was estinmated to be around 32.17 million people.

By population, Peru is the 44th largest country, and the fourth largest in South America, outstripped only by Brazil (204.5 million), Colombia (48.5 million) and Argentina (43.1 million).

The current population of Peru in 2017 is estimated at 32.17 million, up from the 2013 estimate of 30,475,144 and its 2007 census figure of 28.2 million.

The law in Peru requires that the Government hold a census every ten years. In total, there have been 11 censuses held in Peru since the first in 1836. Generally (see the next paragraph for the exception), the data collected is considered fairly reliable.

The last census in Peru was controversially held in 2007, just two years after the 2005 census. The census was officially held because of inaccuracies in the 2005 census, although many felt that the government's decision to re-run the survey was politically motivated. The decision to make everyone stay at home on the day of the census and for most businesses to close caused a great deal of anger, and was estimated to have cost the country up to $250 million.

If the law is upheld, the next census in Peru should be held by 2017 at the latest.

Based on the latest figures, Peru's 2016 population is estimated at 31,151,643. Its current population density is just 23 people per square kilometer (or 57/square mile), which makes it the 191st densely populated country.

Peru Population History

Peru is a very multiethnic country and its population has been formed by various groups for more than 500 years. The area was inhabited by Amerindians for thousands of years prior to the Spanish Conquest in the 1500s, and their population decreased from 5 to 9 million in the beginning of the 16th century to just 600,000 one hundred years later due to infectious disease. Spaniards and Africans then moved into the area, mixing with each other and indigenous people of the region, with European immigration from Italy, Germany, Britain and France following behind. Peru freed its black slaves in 1854, then Chinese immigrants began moving into the region to replace the slave workers.

Peru Demographics

The last census in Peru that attempted to classify its population by ethnicity occurred in 1940, at which point 53% of the population was white or mestizo (white and Amerindian ancestry) with 46% Amerindian. The CIA World Factbook cites the majority of Peruvians as Amerindians, particularly Aymara and Quechua, followed by mestizo people.

In 2006, a survey from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica (INEI), Peruvians self-identified as mestizo (59.5%), Quechua (22.7%), Aymara (2.7%), Amazonian (1.8%), Black/Mulatto (1.6%), white (4.9%) and other (6.7%).

There are estimated to be 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru as of 2016.

The further inland, the higher the density of the Amerindian population. The original Amerindian population was devastated by the arrival of colonists from Spain in the 1520s and dropped from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 a century later. The catastrophe was caused by a mixture of smallpox, to which Amerindians had no natural immunity, war and the economic chaos that followed the collapse of the Inca Empire.

Europeans are largely descendants of Spanish and Italian settlers, but following waves of settlers from other European nations also left their mark and there are many descendants of British, German and even Croatian colonists. The highest proportion of Europeans can be found in the northern highlands, in coastal areas and in Peru's major cities.

Asian Peruvian numbers are unclear – the source used in the box above gives figures of both 1% and 3% of the population. The bulk of Peru's Asian population is descended from Chinese and Japanese immigrants. Notably, Alberto Fujimori, Peru’s scandal hit President from 1990 to 2000 was of Japanese descent.

Afro-Peruvians make up around 1-2% of the population and are largely descended from slaves transported to Peru in the 18th and 19th centuries. Like the descendants of European colonists, Afro-Peruvians are largely concentrated in the coastal cities.

Language in Peru

Although Spanish is the official language of Peru, used nationwide, indigenous languages also have official status in areas where they are widely used. Quechua is used widely, particularly in Eastern Peru, and is therefore often quoted as Peru’s second official language. In effect the number of official languages has been limited to two for many years. However, recently Aymara was made an official language in the Puno region in South Eastern Peru.

As well as the official languages listed above, around 150 other indigenous languages are known to be spoken in Peru today (although the exact number cannot be determined as there are still a number of un-contacted or rarely contacted tribes in the country).

Today Spanish is spoken by more than 80% of Peruvians and Quechua by 16%. As its urban population increased in the second half of the twentieth century, Peru saw a steady shift toward speaking Spanish. Recently, though, an increased effort has been made to promote the teaching and usage of indigenous languages, so it is possible they will see a resurgence in use.

Largest Cities in Peru

The largest city in Peru is its capital city, Lima. It is home to more than a quarter of Peruvians and the country's largest city by far with a population of over 8 million.

The city of Lima proper is, according to 2016 estimates, home to 8,852,000 people. This makes it the 20th largest city in the world, equivalent more or less to London.

Lima's wider metropolitan area is home to 9,886,866 people, making it the fourth largest in South America. The only larger cities are Sao Paolo (Brazil, 21 million), Buenos Aires (Argentina, 13.6 million) and Rio de Janiero (Brazil, 12.2 million).

Peru Population in 2018Source: By David Felipe Ruiz Hoyos (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Peru Population Growth

After a very long period of decline in the country, with its population dropping steadily from the 1960s until just a few years ago, Peru is finally seeing positive growth. According to some estimates, Peru could sustain an average growth rate of 5.5% for 40 years and jump to the 26th most populous country from its current rank of 42nd.

Peru is one of the 26 fastest growing countries, and its population is predicted to reach almost 42 million by 2050.

About Peru

Official NameRepublic of Peru
Languages SpokenAymara, Spanish, Quechua
BordersBOL, BRA, CHL, COL, ECU
Is LandlockedNo
Latitude/Longitude-10-76
Currencies UsedPEN

Peru Population Density

Name Population
Lima7,737,002
Arequipa841,130
Callao813,264
Trujillo747,450
Chiclayo577,375
Iquitos437,620
Huancayo376,657
Piura325,466
Chimbote316,966
Cusco312,140
Pucallpa310,750
Tacna280,098
Surco251,648
Ica246,844
Juliaca245,675
Sullana160,789
Chincha Alta153,076
Huanuco147,959
Ayacucho140,033
Cajamarca135,000
Puno116,552
Tumbes109,223
Talara99,074
Chosica88,606
Huaraz86,934
Cerro de Pasco78,910
Chulucanas68,835
San Isidro68,309
Huaral62,174
Pisco61,869
Catacaos57,304
Paita56,151
Abancay55,111
Huacho54,545
Moquegua54,517
Ilo53,476
Tingo Maria53,177
Jaen52,493
Tarma51,350
Barranca46,290
Moyobamba44,276
Lambayeque43,710
Picsi43,610
Chepen41,992
Yurimaguas41,827
Huancavelica41,576
Zana39,200
Tambopata38,966
Juanjui37,715
Puerto Maldonado37,543
La Union34,834
Ferrenafe34,357
Sicuani33,575
La Oroya33,345
Chocope32,370
Imperial32,344
Nuevo Imperial32,344
Tambo Grande30,033
La Rinconada29,678
Pacasmayo29,165
Tocache29,029
Mollendo28,953
Chaupimarca28,666
Paramonga27,631
La Peca27,045
Chancay26,958
Hualmay26,658
Monsefu25,707
Marcavelica25,645
San Vicente de Canete25,517
Querecotillo25,396
Guadalupe25,376
Santa Ana25,145
Rioja25,057
Laredo24,691
Nazca23,556
Yanacancha23,175
Sechura23,020
Moche22,581
Santiago de Cao21,982
Huamachuco21,768
Paijan21,128
Jauja21,057
Viru20,774
Huaura20,723
Bagua Grande20,382
Chachapoyas20,279
Ayaviri19,310
Huanta18,627
Uchiza17,742
La Breita17,693
Andahuaylas17,444
Mala17,260
Zarumilla16,907
Camana16,434
San Pedro de Lloc16,250
Huarmey16,172
Yunguyo16,140
Chongoyape16,061
Ilave16,033
San Clemente15,815
Pimentel15,552
Satipo15,532
Minas de Marcona15,478
Junin15,320
Bellavista15,231
Coishco15,083
Chicama14,915
Saposoa14,894
Santa Maria14,853
Tabalosos14,744
San Ramon14,708
Celendin14,660
Chota14,240
Salinera Colan14,210
Puerto Santa14,066
Ascope14,015
Contamana13,885
Supe13,719
Lamas13,693
Eten13,693
Motupe13,681
Pativilca13,583
Cajabamba13,486
Bambamarca13,351
Azangaro13,290
Vice12,915
Chilca12,884
Atuncolla12,654
Pueblo Nuevo12,471
Morropon12,307
Zorritos12,261
Oxapampa12,000
Puerto Supe11,450
Concepcion11,330
Villa Tupac Amaru11,159
Caras10,926
Soritor10,858
Santa Rosa10,625
Puquio10,491
Santiago10,449
Otuzco10,134
Salaverry10,066
Chupaca9,877
Reque9,808
Olmos9,800
Ilabaya9,492
San Jose de Sisa9,477
Las Lomas9,450
El Alto9,303
Quiruvilca9,226
Lagunas9,197
Calca9,179
Carhuamayo9,122
Aguas Verdes9,106
Mancora9,101
Subtanjalla9,096
Yauya9,092
Campoverde8,945
San Luis8,862
Cocachacra8,799
San Jeronimo8,772
Pacanga8,750
Huancabamba8,553
La Huaca8,468
San Miguel8,400
Pilcomay8,169
Putina8,118
Chazuta8,029
Buenos Aires7,932
San Ignacio7,912
Morococha7,890
Los Aquijes7,848
Hacienda Huancane7,831
Pacocha7,588
Urubamba7,540
Mochumi7,460
Villa Rica7,448
San Jose7,434
Coracora7,420
Talavera7,381
Juli7,309
Cajaruro7,281
Jepelacio7,150
Torata7,054
Tucume7,043
San Juan Bautista6,871
Ambo6,865
Perene6,844
Sicaya6,842
Mazamari6,826
Acolla6,805
Santiago de Chuco6,759
Huicungo6,757
Picota6,697
Morrope6,662
Pangoa6,638
Quilmana6,442
Santa Eulalia6,406
Punta de Bombon6,336
Oyotun6,330
Bellavista6,320
Oyon6,276
Vegueta6,219
Sayan6,196
Jayanca6,126
Macusani6,044
San Agustin5,998
Lluta5,998
Yanahuanca5,992
Bernal5,916
Palpa5,883
Anta5,859
Huayucachi5,827
Asentamiento Humano Nicolas de Pierola5,800
Barranca5,779
Pueblo Nuevo5,766
San Pedro de Cajas5,758
San Bartolo5,733
Yura5,686
Orcopampa5,643
San Jeronimo5,609
Pampas5,521
Caleta de Carquin5,514
Ramon Castilla5,495
Papayal5,484
Urcos5,479
Salitral5,385
Desaguadero5,329
San Miguel de Cauri5,326
Ayabaca5,270
Yungay5,269
Huasahuasi5,146
Tinyahuarco5,066
Carhuaz5,044
Tambo5,032

Peru Population Clock

What is the population of Peru (as of 12/12/2017)?32,341,540
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2017)32,165,485
Births Per Day1,667
Deaths Per Day495
Net Migrations Per Day -105
Net Change Per Day 1,067
Population Change Since January 1st369,182

Peru Population Indicators

IndicatorValue
Crude Birth Rate 19.071 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 5.654 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate -1.204 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 75.112 years
Male Life Expectancy 72.492 years
Female Life Expectancy 77.784 years
Total Fertility Rate 2.383 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 1.12 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.05 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 16.122 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 25.366 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 28.848 years
Rate of Natural Increase 13.417
Median Age (Total) 27.7 years
Median Age (Female) 28.4 years
Median Age (Male) 26.9 years

Peru Population History

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
201732,165,48549.95%50.05%25421.25%
201531,376,67149.95%50.05%24421.33%
201029,373,64649.96%50.04%23401.25%
200527,610,41049.97%50.03%21391.28%
200025,914,87949.97%50.03%20381.51%
199524,038,76049.97%50.03%19381.95%
199021,826,65849.97%50.03%17382.23%
198519,544,95650.00%50.00%15382.40%
198017,359,12050.06%49.94%14392.65%
197515,229,94750.14%49.86%12392.68%
197013,341,06950.22%49.78%10392.82%
196511,607,68150.26%49.74%9412.90%
196010,061,51550.26%49.74%8422.75%
19558,786,75750.25%49.75%7442.60%
19507,727,73450.22%49.78%6470.00%

Peru Population Projections

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
202033,312,17849.93%50.07%26420.00%
202535,130,73649.91%50.09%27451.07%
203036,806,78449.88%50.12%29460.94%
203538,298,81749.86%50.14%30480.80%
204039,606,08849.84%50.16%31490.67%
204540,719,54849.85%50.15%32490.56%
205041,620,30749.86%50.14%32520.44%
205542,301,83249.89%50.11%33530.33%
206042,772,07949.94%50.06%33540.22%
206543,041,22149.99%50.01%33560.13%
207043,124,18650.04%49.96%34560.04%
207543,037,10350.09%49.91%3356-0.04%
208042,794,88250.12%49.88%3356-0.11%
208542,426,98750.15%49.85%3357-0.17%
209041,953,07050.17%49.83%3357-0.22%
209541,401,84650.18%49.82%3259-0.26%
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects (2017 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.
  2. GeoNames Gazetteer