Peru Population 2016

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, sits in western South America. The region has a long history of ancient cultures, including some of the oldest in the world, and finally achieved independence in 1821. Today, Peru's population is very multiethnic.

By population, Peru is the 42nd largest country, and the fourth largest in South America, outstripped only by Brazil (202.5 million), Colombia (49.1 million) and Argentina (41.9 million).

The current population of Peru in 2014 is estimated at 30,911,183, up from the 2013 estimate of 30,475,144 and its 2007 census figure of 28.2 million.

Peru Population 2014

The law in Peru requires that the Government hold a census every ten years.

In total, there have been 11 censuses held in Peru since the first in 1836. Generally (see the next paragraph for the exception), the data collected is considered fairly reliable.

The last census in Peru was controversially held in 2007, just two years after the 2005 census. The census was officially held because of inaccuracies in the 2005 census, although many felt that the government's decision to re-run the survey was politically motivated. The decision to make everyone stay at home on the day of the census and for most businesses to close caused a great deal of anger, and was estimated to have cost the country up to $250 million.

If the law is upheld, the next census in Peru should be held by 2017 at the latest.

Based on the latest figures, Peru's 2014 population is estimated at 30,911,183. Its current population density is just 24 people per square kilometer (or 59/square mile), which makes it the 191st densely populated country.

Peru Population History

Peru's a very multiethnic country and its population has been formed by various groups for more than 500 years. The area was inhabited by Amerindians for thousands of years prior to the Spanish Conquest in the 1500's, and their population decreased from 5 to 9 million in the beginning of the 16th century to just 600,000 one hundred years later due to infectious disease. Spaniards and Africans then moved into the area, mixing with each other and indigenous people of the region, with European immigration from Italy, Germany, Britain and France following behind. Peru freed its black slaves in 1854, then Chinese immigrants began moving into the region to replace the slave workers.

Peru Demographics

The last census in Peru that attempted to classify its population by ethnicity occurred in 1940, at which point 53% of the population was white or mestizo (white and Amerindian ancestry) with 46% Amerindian. The CIA World Factbook cites the majority of Peruvians as Amerindians, particularly Aymara and Quechua, followed by mestizo people.

In 2006, a survey from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica (INEI), Peruvians self-identified as mestizo (59.5%), Quechua (22.7%), Aymara (2.7%), Amazonian (1.8%), Black/Mulatto (1.6%), white (4.9%) and other (6.7%).

There are estimated to be 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru as of 2013.

The further inland, the higher the density of the Amerindian population. The original Amerindian population was devastated by the arrival of colonists from Spain in the 1520s and dropped from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 a century later. The catastrophe was caused by a mixture of smallpox, to which Amerindians had no natural immunity, war and the economic chaos that followed the collapse of Inca Empire.

Europeans are largely descendants of Spanish and Italian settlers, but following waves of settlers from other European nations also left their mark and there are many descendants of British, German and even Croatian colonists. The highest proportion of Europeans can be found in the northern highlands, in coastal areas and in Peru's major cities.

Asian Peruvian numbers are unclear – the source used in the box above gives figures of both 1% and 3% of the population. The bulk of Peru's Asian population is descended from Chinese and Japanese immigrants. Notably, Alberto Fujimori, Peru’s scandal hit President from 1990 to 2000 was of Japanese descent.

Afro-Peruvians make up around 1-2% of the population and are largely descended from slaves transported to Peru in the 18th and 19th centuries. Like the descendants of European colonists, Afro-Peruvians are largely concentrated in the coastal cities.

Language in Peru

Although Spanish is the official language of Peru, used nationwide, indigenous languages also have official status in areas where they are widely used. Quechua is used widely, particularly in Eastern Peru, and is therefore often quoted as Peru’s second official language. In effect the number of official languages has been limited to two for many years. However, recently Aymara was made an official language in the Puno region in South Eastern Peru.

As well as the official languages listed above, around 150 other indigenous languages are known to be spoken in Peru today (although the exact number cannot be determined as there are still a number of un-contacted or rarely contacted tribes in the country).

Today Spanish is spoken by more than 80% of Peruvians and Quechua by 16%. As its urban population increased in the second half of the twentieth century, Peru saw a steady shift towards speaking Spanish. Recently, though, an increased effort has been made to promote the teaching and usage of indigenous languages, so it is possible they will see a resurgence in use.

Largest Cities in Peru

The largest city in Peru is its capital city, Lima. It is home to more than a quarter of Peruvians and the country's largest city by far with a population of more than 8 million.

The city of Lima proper is, according to the 2007 census, home to 7,605,742 people. This makes it the 22nd largest city in the world, equivalent more or less to London.

Lima's wider metropolitan area is home to 8,472,935 people, making it the sixth largest in South America. The only larger cities are Mexico City (Mexico, 22.6 million), Sao Paolo (Brazil, 20.5 million), Buenos Aires (Argentina, 14.5 million), Rio de Janiero (Brazil, 12.1 million) and Bogota (Columbia (8.5 million).

Peru Population Clock

What is the population of Peru (as of [[date]])? [[getCurrentPopulation()]]
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2016) [[getLastEstimate()]]
Births Per Day 8,291
Deaths Per Day 2,483
Net Migrations Per Day -492
Net Change Per Day 5,316
Population Change Since January 1st [[getPopChangeThisYear()]]
  • Net [[getIncreaseOrDecrease()]] of 1 person every [[getDurationPerPerson()]]

  • Population estimated based on interpolation of World Population Prospects data.

Peru Population Indicators

Indicator Value World Ranking
Crude Birth Rate 18.712 births/thousand 89th
Crude Death Rate 5.604 deaths/thousand 156th
Crude Net Migration Rate -1.11 people/thousand 136th
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 75.5 years 76th
Life Expectancy (Male) 72.92 years 74th
Life Expectancy (Female) 78.14 years 85th
Total Fertility Rate 2.351 children/woman 84th
Net Reproduction Rate 1.107 surviving daughters/woman 84th
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.05 males per female 85th
Infant Mortality Rate 15.106 deaths/1,000 live births 97th
Under Five Mortality 24.064 deaths/thousand 80th
Mean Age at Childbearing 28.913 years 103rd

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision)

Peru Population Growth

After a very long period of decline in the country, with its population dropping steadily from the 1960's until just a few years ago, Peru is finally seeing positive growth. According to some estimates, Peru could sustain an average growth rate of 5.5% for 40 years and jump to the 26th most populous country from its current rank of 42nd.

Peru is one of the 26 fastest growing countries, and its population is predicted to reach 42 million by 2050.

Peru Population History

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2016 31,774,225 15,870,861 15,903,364 24 1.2269%
2015 31,376,670 15,673,108 15,703,562 24 1.2591%
2010 29,373,644 14,675,723 14,697,921 22 1.3064%
2005 27,610,406 13,796,299 13,814,107 21 1.2223%
2000 25,914,875 12,950,839 12,964,036 20 1.3282%
1995 24,038,761 12,013,120 12,025,641 18 1.6598%
1990 21,826,658 10,905,860 10,920,798 17 2.0698%
1985 19,544,950 9,772,321 9,772,629 15 2.2828%
1980 17,359,118 8,689,596 8,669,522 13 2.4662%
1975 15,229,951 7,636,237 7,593,714 11 2.6561%
1970 13,341,071 6,699,891 6,641,180 10 2.6865%
1965 11,607,684 5,833,458 5,774,226 9 2.8338%
1960 10,061,519 5,056,798 5,004,721 7 2.8291%
1955 8,786,753 4,415,237 4,371,516 6 2.6416%
1950 7,727,735 3,880,610 3,847,125 6 2.5106%

Peru Population Projections

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2020 33,317,111 16,637,664 16,679,447 26 1.1234%
2025 35,151,871 17,548,588 17,603,283 27 0.9973%
2030 36,855,238 18,395,708 18,459,530 28 0.8673%
2035 38,390,871 19,161,901 19,228,970 29 0.7441%
2040 39,753,599 19,848,682 19,904,917 31 0.6281%
2045 40,928,322 20,448,852 20,479,470 31 0.5141%
2050 41,899,413 20,957,270 20,942,143 32 0.4018%
2055 42,655,949 21,367,400 21,288,549 33 0.2929%
2060 43,196,145 21,677,385 21,518,760 33 0.1922%
2065 43,531,453 21,881,116 21,650,337 34 0.0995%
2070 43,672,348 21,983,174 21,689,174 34 0.014%
2075 43,633,320 21,986,381 21,646,939 34 -0.0647%
2080 43,432,160 21,904,318 21,527,842 33 -0.1297%
2085 43,103,501 21,751,892 21,351,609 33 -0.1848%
2090 42,665,467 21,538,260 21,127,207 33 -0.2312%
2095 42,142,446 21,275,834 20,866,612 32 -0.2682%
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations