Somalia Population 2019
Somalia is located in the Horn of Africa with a 2019 population estimated at 15.44 million, up from the 2013 estimate of 10 million. The country is rapidly expanding with almost 3% annual population growth and a high fertility rate of 6.26 children per woman, which is the 4th highest in the world. Somalia's population ranks 73rd in the world.
Somalia Area and Population Density
This country occupies approximately 246,200 square miles (637,657 square kilometers) of area in Africa, on the eastern coast which borders the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Aden. When calculated with the 2019 population of 15.44 million people, the population density is 62.7 people per square mile (24.2 people per square kilometer) which ranks 155th in the world.
Largest Cities in Somalia
There are three cities in Somalia with a population over 1 million: the capital, Mogadishu, is the largest with 2,425,000 citizens, Beledweyne with 1,947,000, and Baidoa with 1,400,000. Mogadishu is an extremely old and beautiful city, with white beaches that have earned the city the nickname white pearl. The civil war of 1990 was devastating for Mogadishu and the city is still rebuilding. Beledweyne is located 340 miles north of Mogadishu close to the Ethiopian border. Baidoa is found on the south side of the country and is home to much of the country's history and the famous University of Southern Somalia. There are a few other significantly sized cities with populations over 500,000 including Hargeisa, Beled Hawo, and Garoowe.
Around 85% of its people are ethnic Somalis, who have inhabited the region historically. Ethnic minorities make up the rest of the population and are concentrated primarily in the southern areas of Somalia. Non-Somali ethnic groups include Benadiri, Bravanese, Bantus, Ethiopians, Indians, Persians and Italians. The Bantus are the largest ethnic minority in Somalia and are descended from slaves brought by Arab traders. After the country gained independence, most Europeans left the region.
The official languages used in Somalia include Somali and Arabic. Italian and English are also used in the region.
Somalia Religion, Economy and Politics
Most of the people are Muslims, with the majority being Sunni. Its 10.9 million population represents a huge increase from the 3.3 million people in 1975, but civil strife in the 90's increased Somali diaspora and many of the highly educated people left.
As of the 2018 World Happiness Report as presented by Wikipedia shows Somalia ranking in at number 98 on the list of participating countries, with an overall happiness rating of 4.98 out of 10.
Somalia has seen numerous issues in the last few decades, including poor governance, protracted internal conflict, underdevelopment, economic decline, poverty, social and gender inequality and more.
The median age among the population of Somalia is only 18 years of age, with a life expectancy of 52.8 years of age overall. Males are expected to live to approximately 50 years, with females expected to live approximately 54 years. The current fertility rate is holding at more than 5 children per woman, however, a disproportionately high rate of infant mortality exists - coming in with nearly 100 infant deaths per 1,000 live births.
One factor that is likely strongly connected to this particular statistic, is the extremely low physician density in Somalia. According to the World Factbook, there are only .03 physicians per 1,000 individuals in the population. Oddly enough, there are at least 8 hospital beds available per 1,000 residents.
When we turn attention to the drinking water and sanitation statistics, things become even more grim. Only 31% of the population has access to clean drinking water and only 23% have access to improved sanitation facilities. This lack of hygienic access leaves the population prone to infections including Hepatitis A, E, and other diseases as well.
Somalia Population History
Humans have occupied the land of Somalia since ancient times, but it has gone through many changes in terms of leadership throughout time. The Ajuran Sultanate ruled the region from the 13th century until Egypt, France, and Italy began to occupy different parts of the land in the mid-late 1800s. Somalia gained independence from all of those nations in the mid-1900s after many border negotiations.
Soon after their independence, Somali encountered problems of its own when a drought caused thousands to die of starvation in 1975, and Somalia invaded Ethiopia to oppose their regime in the 1980s. In 1993 Somalia shot down two US helicopters, which ignited a battle that killed hundreds of Somalians. In December of 2004, a Tsunami displaced 10,000 along the coast. Famine killed over a quarter-million people between 2010-2012.
Somalia Population Growth
Since the beginning of the new government under Gelayadh in 2000, the growth rate in Somalia has been steadily high, growing steadily at around 3% annually. This is a fairly high rate of growth considering the economic and political climate, but since the growth rate hasn't been this high historically, it has yet to cause serious ramifications. As of 2019, the annual growth rate is 2.99%, with the population at 15,636,171.
Somalia Population Projections
The rate of growth in Somalia is predicted to persist for roughly the next ten years before slowly declining to 2.38% by 2050. Estimates show that the 2020 growth rate will b2 2.98%, before peaking at 3.0% in 2525, but getting down to 2.9% by 2030. With rates this high, it is expected that the population will more than double over the next 30 years. Current projections show that the population will be 16,105,174 in 2020, 21,535,019 in 2030, 28,145,899 in 2040 and 35,851,792 by 2050.
Components of Population Change
|One birth every 50 seconds|
|One death every 3 minutes|
|One net migrant every 14 minutes|
|Net gain of one person every 1 minutes|