Turkmenistan Population 2019

5,980,933

Turkmenistan, formerly Turkmenia, is a Turkic state in Central Asia bordered by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and the Caspian Sea. The estimated 2019 population of Turkmenistan is 5.94 million, which ranks 113th in the world.

Turkmenistan Area and Population Density

Located in Central America along the Caspian Sea, the country of Turkmenistan has a total surface area of 188,456 square miles (488,099 square kilometers), which is roughly the size of the state of California and ranks the 57th in the world in terms of sheer size. Despite its relatively large size, Turkmenistan is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, largely because most of the country is covered by the Turan Depression and the Karakum Desert. Using the 2017 population of 5.758 million, the population density of Turkmenistan is 31 people per square miles (12 people per square kilometers), which ranks 178th in the world in terms of population density.

Largest Cities in Turkmenistan

Just under half of the population living in Turkmenistan live in or around major cities. The capital and largest city is Ashgabat, or Ashkhabad (formerly Poltoratsk), with an estimated population of more than 1 million in the greater metropolitan area. Ashgabat is the administrative center in Turkmenistan, as well as the industrial hub for the textile, metallurgy, carpet-weaving and glassworks industries. The second-largest city is the ancient Türkmenabat, with 243,909 residents. Türkmenabat was a major part of the Great Silk Road and is found along the Transcaspian Railway. Other notable cities with populations over 100,000 include Daşoguz, Mary, and Balkanabat.

Turkmenistan Demographics

The majority of Turkmenistan's people are ethnic Turkmens (85%) with large minorities of Uzbeks (5%) and Russians (4%). Small minorities include the Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Kurds, Armenians, Azeris, Balochs and Pashtuns.

In 1939, 18.6% of the population was ethnic Russian, which fell to 9.5% in 1989. Today, it is estimated at 4%. The number of Turkmen in the country doubled from 1989 to 2001 while the number of Russians fell by around 66%.

Turkmenistan Religion, Economy and Politics

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Muslims make up 89% of the population in Turkmenistan, and most Turkmen site Islam as an integral part of their daily life and culture. An additional 10% of the population are of the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the religion of the remaining 1% of the population is unknown, according to the CIA World Factbook. The Pew Research Center places the Muslim population even higher at 93%.

The economy of Turkmenistan is heavily dependent on both agriculture and their gas and oil resources. Turkmenistan is ranked number seven in the world in terms of natural gas reserves, although they are limited in their means to export it. Turkmenistan also produces over 200,000 barrels of oil per day, roughly half of which is consumed domestically. The two most prominent crops are cotton and wheat. Roughly half of the country's workforce work in agriculture, 38% work in services and the rest largely work in industry and construction. The financial system in Turkmenistan is completely under the control of the state.

As a presidential republic, the president of Turkmenistan is head of both the state and the government. The legislature is known as the Mejlis and is a unicameral parliament with 125 members, each serving five-year terms. The judicial system is comprised of a Supreme Court, six provincial courts, and 61 city and district courts. Military courts were outlawed in 1997, and the president has the power to appoint judges. Broken into five areas, Turkmenistan each of which has its regional administration.

Turkmenistan Population History

The area now known as Turkmenistan has been occupied by humans since at least 6th century BC. Arabs conquered the area in the 7th century AD, converting the region to Islam. Genghis Khan took over the region several hundred years later, followed by the Persians in the 15th through 17th centuries. Present-day Turkmenistan was incorporated as part of Russia in 1881, and they became a constituent republic of the USSR in 1925. An earthquake killed over 100,000 people in Turkmenistan in 1948. Turkmenistan became a sovereign nation, free of Russia, in 1990.

Turkmenistan Population Growth

The growth rate of the population in Turkmenistan hit a peak around the time that they gained their independence in 1990, but the rate of change has been fluctuating a bit since that time. Although it is difficult to pinpoint causation, emigration has also been inconsistent during the same period. As of 2019, the annual growth rate in Turkmenistan was 1.56%.

Turkmenistan Population Projections

Although there has been fluctuating population patterns in the fairly recent past, the rate of change is expected to steadily decrease in the near future. Current projections believe that the annual rate will peak in 2020 at 1.62% before gradually declining over a whole percentage point to 0.61% by 2050. During this same period it is predicted that the population of Turkmenistan will be 6,031,195 in 2020, 6,767,418 in 2030, 7,371,176 in 2040 and 7,887,617 by 2050.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 4 minutes
One death every 13 minutes
One net migrant every 111 minutes
Net gain of one person every 6 minutes

Turkmenistan Population in 2018Source: By Bj�rn Christian T�rrissen (Own work by uploader, http://bjornfree.com/) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Turkmenistan Population Pyramid 2019

Turkmenistan Population by Age

There are 3,821,293 adults in Turkmenistan.

Census Years

Year Date
20222022
201226 December 2012
199510 January 1995
198912 January 1989

Turkmenistan is currently growing at a rate of 1.3%. The country has a fertility rate of 2.36 births per woman, which has fallen dramatically over the past few decades but remains above the replacement rate of 2.1. Life expectancy is now 65 years.

Official NameTurkmenistan
Languages SpokenRussian, Turkmen
Is LandlockedYes
Latitude/Longitude40.00, 60.00
Currencies UsedTurkmenistan Manat
DemonymTurkmen
BordersAfghanistan
Iran
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Name Population Location
Ashgabat727,700Map
Turkmenabat234,817Map
Dasoguz166,500Map
Mary114,680Map
Balkanabat87,822Map
Bayramaly75,797Map
Turkmenbasy68,292Map
Tejen67,294Map
Abadan39,481Map
Yoloeten37,705Map
Gowurdak34,745Map
Atamyrat33,242Map
Koeneuergench30,000Map
Annau27,526Map
Yylanly26,901Map
Gumdag24,312Map
Baharly22,991Map
Boldumsaz21,159Map
Bereket21,090Map
Gazojak21,021Map

Turkmenistan Population Clock

The population of Turkmenistan (as of 12/4/2019)?5,980,933
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2019)5,942,089
Births Per Day376
Deaths Per Day114
Net Migrations Per Day-13
Net Change Per Day249
Population Change Since January 1st83,913

Turkmenistan Population Estimator

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Estimate as of December 4th 2019 is: 5,980,175

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20195,942,08949.24%50.76%12.171131.56%
20185,850,90149.24%50.76%11.991131.62%
20175,757,66749.24%50.76%11.801131.68%
20165,662,36849.24%50.76%11.601141.74%
20155,565,28749.24%50.76%11.401151.81%
20105,087,21349.19%50.81%10.421161.36%
20054,754,64649.19%50.81%9.741141.03%
20004,516,13349.22%50.78%9.251141.42%
19954,207,84149.23%50.77%8.621182.69%
19903,683,96749.14%50.86%7.551192.58%
19853,244,01848.98%51.02%6.651232.43%
19802,876,80848.96%51.04%5.891232.64%
19752,525,36448.97%51.03%5.171242.84%
19702,195,17548.91%51.09%4.501243.01%
19651,892,59948.82%51.18%3.881253.37%
19601,603,25848.76%51.24%3.281273.28%
19551,364,63548.80%51.21%2.801302.42%
19501,210,99449.02%50.98%2.481300.00%
Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
20206,031,20049.23%50.77%12.361130.00%
20256,437,58949.19%50.81%13.191121.31%
20306,782,35549.13%50.87%13.901111.05%
20357,099,00049.06%50.94%14.541110.92%
20407,408,53049.01%50.99%15.181140.86%
20457,701,11248.96%51.04%15.781140.78%
20507,949,28148.91%51.09%16.291140.64%
20558,139,14148.85%51.15%16.681130.47%
20608,276,87448.78%51.22%16.961120.34%
20658,379,68648.72%51.28%17.171090.25%
20708,459,68348.68%51.32%17.331090.19%
20758,519,12048.65%51.35%17.451070.14%
20808,553,16448.63%51.37%17.521070.08%
20858,560,02648.60%51.40%17.541070.02%
20908,539,45148.57%51.43%17.50107-0.05%
20958,492,06248.54%51.46%17.40107-0.11%
  1. State Committee of Turkmenistan on Statistics
  2. World Population Prospects (2019 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with the 1989 census, and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration. Data from the 1995 census was also considered.

  3. GeoNames Gazetteer