Turkmenistan Population 2017
Turkmenistan has a population of 5.17 million, compared to 4.9 million in 2000. Turkmenistan is one of the least densely populated countries in the world, as most of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The population density is 10.5 people per square kilometer (27/sq mi), which ranks 208th in the world.
The capital and largest city is Ashgabat, or Ashkhabad (formerly Poltoratsk) with an estimated population of more than 1 million.
The majority of Turkmenistan's people are ethnic Turkmens (85%) with large minorities of Uzbeks (5%) and Russians (4%). Small minorities include the Kazakhs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Kurds, Armenians, Azers, Balochs and Pashtuns.
In 1939, 18.6% of the population was ethnic Russian, which fell to 9.5% in 1989. Today, it is estimated at 4%. The number of Turkmen in the country doubled from 1989 to 2001 while the number of Russians fell by around 66%.
Muslims make up 89% of the population while 9% follow the Eastern Orthodox Church and the other 2% are non-religious, according to the CIA World Factbook. The Pew Research Center places the Muslim population at 93%.
Source: Bjørn Christian Tørrissen