United States Population 2018

326,691,172

According to the US Census Bureau's population clock, the estimated 2018 United States population (February 2018) is 327.16 million. This is a bit higher than the 326.77 million estimated by the United Nations.

By population, the United States of America is the third largest country in the world, falling far behind China (1.4 billion) and India (1.25 billion). Its most populous states are California (39.5 million) and Texas (27 million), and its most populous city is New York City (8.5 million).

Largest state in the United States

The largest state in the USA by population is California, which is estimated to be home to just over 39.5 million people. If California was a country, it would be the 36th most populous in the world, slightly larger than Iraq and Poland. Its economy would be the eighth largest in the world, with roughly the same GDP as Italy, a European country of 61 million people. Interestingly, although California is the largest state in the United States of America, it isn't the largest state in the Americas - that honor goes to Brazil's state of Sao Paulo with over 45 million residents.

Largest city in the United States

The largest city in the USA is New York City. The city's population is estimated at an impressive 8.5 million, which makes New York City larger than the second and third most populous cities in the United States (Los Angeles and Chicago) combined.

For much of the early 20th century, New York City was the largest city in the world. The stunning growth of cities elsewhere in the world means that today, New York is not even in the top 20, when ranking by city proper. It is, however, the world's second largest city by GDP - its nominal GDP of $1.55 trillion puts it second only to the Japanese city of Tokyo.

United States Census 2010

The United States census is held once every ten years, to count the number of people in the country along with gathering basic information, including age, sex, and race. The last census was held in 2010, and the next census will be held in 2020.

The information collected in the census is used for many purposes. The first purpose is to ensure that each seat in Congress represents roughly the same amount of people. National and State governments also use the information to plan services - for example, if they know that the population in an area is growing rapidly, they can plan to build more housing, schools, and hospitals. Every year, the Census Bureau also releases annual population estimates. Statistical modelling methods are applied to the most recent census data to give an up-to-date picture of how the population of America changes between censuses.

United States Population History

Nobody is sure what the population of the Americas was before Columbus arrived in 1492. Estimates vary wildly, but it is commonly accepted that the indigenous population of the Americas (the continents of North and South America combined) was between 50 million and 100 million in the 1490s. That includes approximately 15 million people living in the Aztec Empire and around 6 million Inca. The population of North America at the time is equally uncertain and has been estimated to be between 5 and 15 million.

Indigenous populations were hit hard by the arrival of European settlers. They were attacked by diseases including smallpox, and some historians believe that disease killed over 50% of the population. Even more were killed by wars, massacres, and resettlement programs. The Native American population of the United States reached a low point in the early 20th century but has since been gradually increasing.

Formal censuses were not carried out during the colonial era, but records show that the colonial population grew from a shaky start of just 3,800 in 1610 to over 1 million in 1750. The population grew rapidly moving forward, and when the first official census was held in 1790 shortly after independence, the population had grown to nearly 4 million.

United States Population Projections

The population of the US continues to grow today, driven by a high level of immigration. The latest data from the Census Bureau shows that US population growth is running at between 0.7% and 0.9% per year. A 2015 Census Bureau Report suggests that growth will slow somewhat, and projects a 2060 population of 417 million, with the country crossing the 400 million threshold in 2051.

The United Nations projects a lower total, estimating a population of just over 400 million in 2060.

The country's racial profile will be vastly different, and although whites will remain the single largest racial group in the the US, they will no longer be a majority by 2055 according to Pew Research Center. Growth in the Hispanic and Asian populations is predicted to almost triple over the next 40 years. By 2055, the breakdown is estimated to be 48% White, 24% Hispanic, 14% Asian, and 13% Black.

As of 2015, 14% of the United States' population is foreign born, compared to just 5% in 1965. Nearly 39 million immigrants have come to the US since 1965, with most coming from Asia and Latin America. The 2015 Census Report predicts that the percentage of the US population that is foreign born will continue to increase, reaching 19% by 2060. This increase in the foreign-born population will account for a large share of the overall population growth.

The average US citizen of 2060 is likely to be older than the average citizen of today, and almost one in four people will be 65 or older. At the same time, the percentage of people who are working age (18-64) is likely to fall from 63% today to 52% in 2060. This will have huge implications for society as younger people work to fund the pensions and healthcare of the older generation.

United States Quality of Life

The average life expectancy of a person born in the United States in 2017 is 79.5 years. As is common in most countries in the world, US women have a higher life expectancy than men - women born in 2017 live for 81.8 years on average, while the life expectancy of men is just 77.1 years.

Compared to the rest of the world, using data compiled by the United Nations, the United States is only 39th in the world when it comes to life expectancy. Interestingly, both the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico have higher life expectancies than those born in the continental US. Hawaii is the state with the highest life expectancy (81.3 years) and Mississippi is the state with the lowest life expectancy (74.9 years).

Although the United States has the largest overall economy in the world, it does not have the highest GDP per capita. With a GDP per capita of $55,800, the United States ranks 19th in the world, falling behind small countries like Luxembourg that have economies based around servicing international finance, as well as trailing major countries such as Australia. Average salary, calculated in 2014, is very similar at $51,939. The state with the highest GDP per capita is North Dakota ($72,719) and the state with the lowest GDP per capita is Mississippi ($34,784.)

Despite having a high GDP per capita and a healthy life expectancy, the United States ranks only 14th in the most recent World Happiness Report.

Language

The language most commonly spoken in the United States is English, which is the main language of 82.9% of American residents. Spanish is the main language of 12.85% of residents and Chinese is the main language of 0.64%.

Native American languages are the main language of 0.9% of residents. There is a wide variety of different Native American languages, many of which are on the endangered list. The most widely spoken is Southern Quechua, used by around 7 million people.

Although legal documents are normally written in English, the United States has no official lanaguage at the federal level. At the state level most, but not all states have English as their official language. Hawaii is the only state to have two official languages - English and Hawaiian.

Religion

The cultural diversity of the United States is no more evident than in the wide range of religious beliefs practiced across the country. While the Protestant/Christian tradition is the clear majority at 48.9%, there are many varieties of Christianity, from the more conservative Baptists and Evangelicals to the generally more liberal Episcopalians and Quakers. A sizeable proportion of the population (23%) also identify as Catholic; again, the views of these individuals vary widely and many are likely to consider themselves to be Catholic while only nominally practicing that faith.

There are a number of substantial minority faiths in the United States. Judaism is the religion of 2.1% of the population, but Jewish culture in the United States is highly visible, with Jewish holidays such as Hanukkah widely celebrated. In addition, many well-known writers, academics and television personalities have Jewish backgrounds. Other minority, yet still widely practiced faiths, include Islam (0.8%) and Mormonism (1.8%), while smaller numbers identify as Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, Wiccans, and many other varieties of religious faiths.

It is also worth noting that a significant minority of 18.2% identifies as having no religion or as Atheist/Agnostic. Young people make up the majority of this group and its numbers are consistently increasing. However, the freedom to practice one's religion is among the most important rights in the United States, to the extent that it is enshrined in the US Constitution. Therefore, while in the years ahead, the religious demographics of the United States are likely to continue to shift, the majority of the population will almost certainly wish to protect the rights of those of all faiths and none.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 8 seconds
One death every 12 seconds
One net migrant every 35 seconds
Net gain of one person every 14 seconds

United States Population in 2018Source: By Tysto [Public domain], from Wikimedia Commons

United States Population Pyramid 2018

0k500k1M2M2M3MUnited States Male Population0k500k1M2M2M3MUnited States Female Population10095908580757065605550454035302520151050

United States Median Age

37.9


Total

36.6


Male

39.3


Female

United States Population by Age

There are 250,458,751 adults in United States.

Census Years

Year Date
2020April 2020
20101 April 2010
20001 April 2000
19901 April 1990
19801 April 1980
19701 April 1970
19601 April 1960
19501 April 1950
19401 April 1940
19301 April 1930
19201 January 1920
191015 April 1910
19001 January 1900

Population by Race

Race Population
Total318,558,162
White233,657,078
Black or African American40,241,818
Asian16,614,625
Some Other Race15,133,856
Two or More Races9,752,947
American Indian and Alaska Native2,597,817
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander560,021

The United States is highly diverse, with many races making up the total population of more than 318 million. White Americans are the majority at 73.3% of the total population (although this drops to 65.8% when the substantial Hispanic population is included). The largest minority group in the United States are Black or African Americans, making up 12.6% of the total population, while Asians represent 5.2%, although this is likely to include individuals from many different countries.

Just over 3% of the population identifies as being of two or more races, while there are very small minorities of American Indian and Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders at 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. It is worth noting that census data shows a significant minority of the population (4.8%, representing more than 15 million people) consider themselves to be of some other race, which reflects the cultural and racial heterogeneity of the United States.

The United States has become more ethnically and racially diverse over the past century, and will continue this trend into the latter half of the 21st century. By 2060, the breakdown is projected to be the following: 68.5% White (43.6% Non-Hispanic), 14.3% Black, 1.3% American Indian, and 9.3% Asian. The overall Hispanic population is expected to increase from 17.4% to 28.6%. Currently, the non-Hispanic White population is the majority demographic, representing 62.2%, but in 2044 this population is expected to drop below 50% of the total population. At this point the US will become a "majority-minority" country, where no single racial or ethnic group is more than 50% of the total population.

Of the single race groups, the Asian population is expected to be the fastest growing one over the next 50 years, moving from 5.4% of the total population to 9.3%. All other racial groups are also expected to increase as a percentage of the US population.

Race Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey)

Languages Spoken in United States

Language Population Percentage
English231,122,90879.29%
Spanish37,458,47012.85%
Chinese1,867,4850.64%
Tagalog1,613,3460.55%
Vietnamese1,399,9360.48%
French1,253,5600.43%
Korean1,117,3430.38%
German1,063,2750.36%
Arabic924,3740.32%
Russian879,4340.30%

This chart shows the top 10 languages that are spoken at home in United States. The data comes from the most recent release of the American Community Survey (ACS).

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

United States Population Growth

High levels of immigration combined with a healthy birth rate mean that, in contrast to many other developed countries, the US population continues to grow at a steady rate, increasing at around 0.9% each year.

About United States

Official NameUnited States of America
Languages SpokenEnglish
Is LandlockedNo
Latitude/Longitude38-97
Currencies UsedUnited States Dollar, USN, USS
DemonymAmerican

Countries Bordering United States

Canada
Mexico

United States Population Density

United States Top 20 Cities by Population

Name Population
New York City8,175,133
Los Angeles3,971,883
Chicago2,720,546
Brooklyn2,300,664
Houston2,296,224
Queens2,272,771
Philadelphia1,567,442
Phoenix1,563,025
Manhattan1,487,536
San Antonio1,469,845
San Diego1,394,928
The Bronx1,385,108
Dallas1,300,092
San Jose1,026,908
Austin931,830
Jacksonville868,031
San Francisco864,816
Columbus850,106
Fort Worth833,319
Indianapolis829,718

United States Population Clock

The population of United States (as of 6/18/2018)?326,691,172
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2018)326,766,748
Births Per Day11,283
Deaths Per Day7,449
Net Migrations Per Day 2,464
Net Change Per Day 6,298
Population Change Since January 1st1,064,362

United States Official Census Data

Year Population Density (km²) Growth Rate
2010308,745,53832.940.93%
2000281,421,90630.031.24%
1990248,709,87326.540.94%
1980226,545,80524.171.09%
1970203,211,92621.681.26%
1960179,323,17519.131.71%
1950151,325,79816.151.36%
1940132,164,56914.100.70%
1930123,202,62413.141.51%
1920106,021,53711.311.40%
191092,228,4969.841.93%
190076,212,1688.131.93%
189062,979,7666.722.30%
188050,189,2095.352.67%
187038,558,3714.112.06%
186031,443,3213.353.09%
185023,191,8762.473.11%
184017,069,4531.822.87%
183012,866,0201.372.93%
18209,638,4531.032.90%
18107,239,8810.773.15%
18005,308,4830.573.05%
17903,929,2140.423.52%
17802,780,3690.302.61%
17702,148,0760.233.03%
17601,593,6250.173.13%
17501,170,7600.122.60%
1740905,5630.103.70%
1730629,4450.073.05%
1720466,1850.053.46%
1710331,7110.042.83%
1700250,8880.031.78%
1690210,3720.023.34%
1680151,5070.023.07%
1670111,9350.014.08%
166075,0580.014.07%
165050,3680.016.58%
164026,6340.0019.08%
16304,6460.000.00%

United States Ancestry (2016 ACS)

Ancestry Persons Percentage
Other groups122,416,83130.66%
Unclassified or not reported48,337,16512.11%
German45,879,36011.49%
Irish33,093,5508.29%
English24,426,6236.12%
American21,961,1295.50%
Italian17,174,7414.30%
Polish9,344,1262.34%
French (except Basque)8,151,4992.04%
Scottish5,457,7981.37%
Norwegian4,454,9641.12%
Dutch4,210,7871.05%
European3,922,8810.98%
Swedish3,908,7620.98%
Subsaharan African3,232,1420.81%
Scotch-Irish3,056,8480.77%
West Indian (except Hispanic groups)2,881,0070.72%
Russian2,795,4430.70%
French Canadian2,084,9030.52%
Arab1,883,4560.47%

This chart shows the top 10 ancestries in the United States. The data comes from the most recent release of the American Community Survey (ACS), B04006 - People Reporting Ancestry.

United States Religion (2016 Gallup Poll)

Religion Percentage
Protestant/Other Christian48.9%
Catholic23%
None/Atheist/Agnostic18.2%
No response given2.6%
Other non-Christian religion2.5%
Jewish2.1%
Mormon1.8%
Muslim0.8%

The United States Constitution enshrines the right to religious freedom and prevents the development of an official state religion. The lack of official involvement in religion means that no questions about religion are asked in the census, and as a result, limited and sometimes questionable data is available.

United States Population Indicators

IndicatorValue
Crude Birth Rate 12.653 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 8.352 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate 2.763 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 79.62 years
Male Life Expectancy 77.34 years
Female Life Expectancy 81.88 years
Total Fertility Rate 1.886 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 0.909 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.048 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 5.195 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 6.079 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 29.514 years
Rate of Natural Increase 4.301

United States Population by Year (Historical)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
2018326,766,74849.51%50.49%34.8630.71%
2017324,459,46349.50%50.50%34.6230.71%
2016322,179,60549.48%50.52%34.3730.70%
2015319,929,16249.47%50.53%34.1330.72%
2010308,641,39149.39%50.61%32.9330.90%
2005295,129,50149.35%50.65%31.4930.92%
2000281,982,77849.25%50.75%30.0931.20%
1995265,658,84949.13%50.87%28.3431.02%
1990252,529,95049.00%51.00%26.9430.95%
1985240,824,12049.05%50.95%25.6930.94%
1980229,763,05249.03%50.97%24.5130.95%
1975219,205,29649.17%50.83%23.3930.90%
1970209,588,15049.24%50.76%22.3630.96%
1965199,815,54049.44%50.56%21.3231.36%
1960186,808,22849.54%50.46%19.9331.69%
1955171,783,84249.68%50.32%18.3331.58%
1950158,804,39549.89%50.11%16.9430.00%

United States Population by Year (Projections)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
2020331,431,53449.53%50.47%35.3630.00%
2025343,255,84649.58%50.42%36.6230.70%
2030354,711,67049.62%50.38%37.8530.66%
2035365,033,87249.67%50.33%38.9530.58%
2040374,068,75249.75%50.25%39.9130.49%
2045382,058,85349.84%50.16%40.7630.42%
2050389,591,66349.95%50.05%41.5740.39%
2055397,018,03150.04%49.96%42.3640.38%
2060404,562,22550.12%49.88%43.1640.38%
2065412,054,50850.17%49.83%43.9640.37%
2070419,161,63150.21%49.79%44.7240.34%
2075425,493,57150.24%49.76%45.4040.30%
2080430,964,44550.25%49.75%45.9840.26%
2085435,665,82150.26%49.74%46.4840.22%
2090439,872,94750.26%49.74%46.9340.19%
2095443,835,15050.27%49.73%47.3540.18%
Data Sources
  1. US Census Bureau - US Population Clock
  2. World Happiness Report
  3. Pew Research Projected US Population by Race
  4. 10 Demographic Trends Shaping the US
  5. World Happiness Report Chapter 7: Restoring American Happiness
  6. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race - American FactFinder B03002
  7. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home
  8. Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: 2014 - 2060
  9. Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S.
  10. World Population Prospects (2017 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with the 2010 census, which includes the population in the territory of the United States and United States citizens serving in the overseas armed forces; with official population estimates for 2015; and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration.

  11. GeoNames Gazetteer