Alabama Population 2018

4,888,949

According to US Census projections for 2018, Alabama's population is estimated to be 4.89 million. The most recent US Census in 2010 recorded the population of Alabama as 4,779,736.

Alabama's population was recently eclipsed by South Carolina's, pushing Alabama to 24th in state rank by population. Alabama's population growth is at 0.26% a year, which ranks it as the 36th fastest growing state.

Alabama Area and Population Density

Based on current population estimates, there are 94.4 people per square mile (36 per square kilometer) over a total surface area of 52,420 square miles, which ranks Alabama 27th in population density in the United States.

Alabama Population Growth and Changes

With regards to Alabama’s natural growth, the state recorded 502,457 births minus 381,403 deaths and an increase in net migration of 104,991 in the years between the 2000 and 2010 Censuses.

Overall, like most of the US, Alabama’s growth has been on a reliable upward trend, but it’s also been a little unremarkable. Further growth at its current rate will bring the population of the state to nearly 5 million by 2020.

Alabama Demographics Overview

Age, Race, and Religion

Alabama has a median age of 38.6 years for the overall population in 2018, with gender percentages currently at 51.5% Female and 48.5% Male (see chart further below).

Alabama has a significant racial divide in terms of population, with caucasians coming in at 68.7%, African Americans coming in at 26.5 %, leaving only 4.8% for the remaining sections of racial diversity within the state.

A large majority of Alabamans - 86% - associate themselves with any variation of Christianity, the remaining 12% are unaffiliated to a particular religion in general.

Alabama Boundary, Census Coverage, and Population History

Most of present-day Alabama was [part of Georgia](/states/georgia-population/) until the south-central part was included in Mississippi Territory, whose establishment was authorized by Congress in 1798 and agreed to by Georgia in 1802. In 1804, Mississippi Territory was expanded to include the rest of Alabama except for the Gulf Coast portion, which was added in 1812 although still in dispute with Spain until 1819. Alabama became a territory in 1817, and was admitted as the 22nd State on December 14, 1819 with substantially its present boundaries (Encyclopedia of Alabama, 2018).

Census coverage of Alabama began in 1800, included much of the State by 1820, and added the rest by 1840. The totals for 1800 and 1810 are for areas then in Mississippi Territory. In 1820 the official State total (127,901) did not include the population (16,416) of three counties whose census returns only arrived in Washington in 1822.

Alabama Population Chart

Alabama Population Growth History

Like other states across the US, the population of Alabama exploded at the start of the 19th century. Recorded figures from 1800 show the number of residents at just 1,250 but by 1810, that had grown by no less than 623.7% to 9,046.

Further substantial population growth was recorded throughout the 1800s, and although the larger increases had settled down by the start of the next century, growth has continued to be recorded at every following census.

However, in the years between 1990 and 2000, that percentage increase was on the move once again, and at the start of the new millennium, Alabama’s numbers had grown by 10.1% to 4,447,100.

Alabama Population Projections

Alabama's population has grown considerably but rather than this being a steady growth, the increase in citizens has been quite variable in recent years. For example, between 1970 and 1980 the population grew by an impressive 13.1% but in the ten years that followed, a mere 3.8% rise was recorded.

Much of this growth can be attributed to the influx of major metropolitatan areas, such as the city of Birmingham and the counties of Baldwin (16%), Lee (14%), and Limestone (13%). Jefferson County remains the top populated county with a total current estimate of over 650,000 and a growth rate of .17%.

Population Data via US Census

Alabama Growth Rate

Alabama Population Rank

Year Pop % Change
20204,917,3530.29%
20194,903,1510.29%
20184,888,9490.29%
20174,874,7470.29%
20164,860,5450.20%
20154,850,8580.22%
20144,840,0370.26%
20134,827,6600.28%
20124,813,9460.32%
20114,798,6490.27%
20104,785,5790.74%
20004,447,1000.96%
19904,040,5870.37%
19803,893,8881.23%
19703,444,1650.53%
19603,266,7400.65%
19503,061,7430.78%
19402,832,9610.68%
19302,646,2481.20%
19202,348,1740.94%
19102,138,0931.58%
19001,828,6971.91%
18901,513,0171.83%
18801,262,5052.39%
1870996,9920.33%
1860964,2012.25%
1850771,6232.71%
1840590,7566.68%
1830309,5279.24%
1820127,90130.33%
18109,04621.89%
18001,2500.00%

Alabama Facts

Alabama Population in 2018Source: By Eric in SF [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

  • The State Constitution of Alabama is one of the longest in the US, containing over 700 amendments.
  • Magnolia Springs, Alabama, has mail delivered by boat and the only all-water mail route in the country.
  • Alabama is the largest supplier of steel pipe and cast-iron products, and the state has all natural resources needed to make these products.
  • Alabama was the 4th state to secede from the Union on January 11, 1861.
  • The Unclaimed Baggage Center of Scottsboro is where all unclaimed airline luggage is sent.
  • The Saturn V rocket, which was used during the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, was built in Huntsville.
  • The first Mardi Gras was originally celebated when Mobile was founded in 1702. Now, the annual celebration is held in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • The East Gulf Coastal Plain covers two-thirds of the state.
  • The state of Alabama has had five capitals throughout its history.

Alabama Population Density by County

Jefferson County

  • Population659,197
  • Density593.19 per sq km
  • Growth Since 20100.17%
  • State Rank1
  • % of State13.52%

Alabama Population Growth Rate by County

Alabama's eastermost county, Russell County, is experiencing the most rapid population growth in the state, increasing by 11.94% since 2010. Lee County, located directly north of Russell County, has experienced similar growth of 11.51%. To the south, Baldwin County has seen population growth of 11.2%, while Limestone County to the north has also experienced growth that exceeds 10%.

Some of the state's central counties, including Perry, Dallas, Lowndes, Macon, Coosa, and Greene, have seen declines in population since 2010, with Macon County topping the list with an 11.33% decline since 2010 based on 2015 US Census Bureau estimates. Many of Alabama's western counties have also seen declines, including Sumter, Choctaw, and Washington located on the western border.

Population by Race

Race Population
White3,317,702
Black or African American1,287,167
Two or More Races88,834
Some Other Race66,942
Asian62,815
American Indian and Alaska Native25,098
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander2,213

Data via US Census (2017 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table B03002

Alabama Population Pyramid 2018

50,000100,000150,000 Male Population50,000100,000150,000 Female Population80757065605550454035302520151050

Data via US Census (2017 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S0101

Alabama Median Age

38.7


Total

37.2


Male

40.1


Female

Alabama Adults

There are 3,748,089 adults, (762,032 of whom are seniors) in Alabama.

Alabama Age Dependency

62.4

Age Dependency Ratio

25.5

Old Age Dependency Ratio

36.9

Child Dependency Ratio

Alabama Sex Ratio

Female

2,499,965

51.54%

Male

2,350,806

48.46%

Alabama Households and Families

Alabama Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

Data via US Census (2017 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S1101

Alabama Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married84%16%
All68.6%31.4%
Male61.4%38.6%
Non Family56.5%43.5%
Female48.6%51.4%

68.6%

Rate of Home Ownership

Alabama Households by Type

Type Count Average Size Owned
All1,856,6952.5568.6
Married879,9243.1484
Non Family622,8321.256.5
Female274,3613.4648.6
Male79,5783.3961.4

3.16

Average Family Size

2.55

Average Household Size

3.7%

Unmarried (Opposite Sex)

0.2%

Unmarried (Same Sex)

Alabama Households

Alabama Education

Alabama Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade154,4054.71%
9th to 12th Grade326,6549.97%
High School Graduate1,012,55130.90%
Some College712,20421.74%
Associates Degree267,2458.16%
Bachelors Degree503,93015.38%
Graduate Degree299,6489.14%

Alabama Educational Attainment by Race

Name Total High School Bachelors
White2,274,6721,994,560618,618
Black810,063661,264137,084
Hispanic98,72159,06413,787
Asian42,02536,58521,154
Multiple Races37,47032,3119,861
Other Race33,02417,1733,135
Native American17,30313,9073,107
Islander1,4391,056240

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 87.69%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 50.34%.

Alabama Earnings by Educational Attainment

Name Average Male Female
Overall$33,981$41,268$27,502
Less Than High School$20,377$24,179$15,050
High School Grad$27,181$33,289$21,142
Some College$31,779$41,218$26,069
Bachelors Degree$48,391$61,819$40,198
Graduate Degree$57,603$78,943$51,366

$33,981

Average Earnings

$41,268

Average Male

$27,502

Average Female

Alabama Language

Alabama Language by Age

Alabama Language

94.86% of Alabama residents speak only English, while 5.14% speak other languages. The largest non-English language is Spanish, which is spoken by 3.21% of the population.

Alabama Poverty

Alabama Poverty by Race

Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
White3,132,328396,50712.66%
Black1,239,724360,40729.07%
Hispanic194,09062,60732.26%
Other65,61423,48935.80%
Multiple86,62120,25923.39%
Asian61,2518,59714.04%
Native24,4034,20917.25%
Islander2,17233415.38%

17.97%

Overall Poverty Rate

16.12%

Male Poverty Rate

19.69%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Alabama

The race most likely to be in poverty in Alabama is Other, with 35.80% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Alabama is White, with 12.66% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 3.70%. Among those working part-time, it was 21.32%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 24.98%.

Alabama Poverty Rate by Education

Name Poverty
Less Than High School30.43%
High School16.39%
Some College11.76%
Bachelors or Greater4.38%

Alabama Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Name Poverty
Female Unemployed44.30%
Male Unemployed33.81%
Female Employed9.94%
Male Employed6.46%

Alabama Income

Alabama Income by Household Type

Name Median Mean
Households$46,472$64,476
Families$59,115$77,153
Married Families$73,402$91,953
Non Families$25,802$37,491

Alabama Marital Status

Alabama Marital Status

Marriage Rates

47.8%

Overall Marriage Rate

50.3%

Male Marriage Rate

45.5%

Female Marriage Rate

Alabama Married by Age and Sex

Alabama Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45To54.

Alabama Marital Status by Race


Data via US Census (2017 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S1201

Alabama Veterans

Alabama Veterans by War

341,642

Number of Veterans

311,235

Male Veterans

30,407

Female Veterans

Name Veterans
Vietnam126,957
First Gulf War79,557
Second Gulf War62,614
Korea30,096
World War II12,114

Alabama Veterans by Age

Name Veterans
35 to 5487,654
65 to 7485,165
55 to 6472,289
75+69,578
18 to 3426,956

Alabama Veterans by Race

Name Veterans % of Total
White257,2279.82%
Black74,3947.75%
Hispanic5,9494.96%
2 or More4,88510.38%
Indian2,26911.36%
Other1,4073.52%
Asian1,1462.38%
Hawaiian31421.30%

Alabama Veterans by Education

7.55%

Veteran Poverty Rate

32.12%

Veteran Disability Rate

Alabama Employment Status

Alabama Employment by Age

57.6%

Labor Force Participation

53%

Employment Rate

7.4%

Unemployment Rate

Alabama Employment by Race

Alabama Employment by Education

Alabama Nativity

Alabama Citizenship Status

Data Sources
  1. Alabama State Data Center
  2. US Census State Population Estimates - Most recent state estimates from the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program
  3. US Census County Population Estimates - Most recent county estimates from the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program
  4. American Community Survey (2009 - 2013)
  5. Census QuickFacts
  6. Historical Populations of States and Counties (1790 - 1990)