Montana Population 2018

1,062,330

As of 2018, the estimated population of Montana is 1.06 million. Montana is a vast area of open space, situated in the northwest portion of the United States. It may be the fourth biggest state in the country in terms of sheer size, but its population statistics are a testament to the geography of Montana, most of which is not suitable for large development.

There are only two states in the US that are more sparsely populated than the aptly nicknamed Big Sky Country -- Alaska and Wyoming. In terms of pure population numbers, the state surpassed the 1 million mark according to estimates from the US Census Bureau for 2016. The estimated 2018 population is 1.06 million, making Montana the 44th most populous state. The state has reflected a moderate growth rate of 0.79%, which ranks 26th in the nation.

The US Census of 2010 confirmed that 989,415 people were living in Montana, an increase of 9.7% from the findings of 2000. The Montana population surpassed 1 million for the first time in 2012, and it now stands at 1.03 million.

With a sprawling land mass of 145,552.43 square miles, there are only three bigger states in the US. However, for every square mile of land, there is an average of just 6.86 people (2.65 per square kilometer) and that makes Montana the 48th most densely populated area in the country. Mountain ranges, lakes and national parks all contribute to that figure in a huge area of outstanding natural beauty.

There are few large urban areas in the state of Montana. The largest city is Billings, home to 110,263 people in 2016. Other sizable cities are Missoula (pop: 71,022) and Great Falls (pop: 59,638). Urban areas in Montana are actually growing quite rapidly, while more rural areas are gradually becoming less populated. This is a trend that is common among many states in the country.

Montana Demographics

94.8% of Montana's population speaks English, although there are many other languages spoken in the state, including Blackfoot, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Plains Cree, Crow, Dakota and Kutenai. This is because Montana has one of the highest Native American populations in the US, with about 66,000 people of Native American heritage. This is the result of many treaties and federal legislation, including one that recognizes the Little Shell Chippewa, a nation of "landless" people in Great Falls recognized by the state but not the federal government. About 63% of these people live off reservation -- mostly in cities -- with Great Falls having the largest concentration of urban Indians.

Montana Population History

The eastern and central parts of Montana were acquired as early as the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but had no organized government until Nebraska Territory was established in 1854. The northwestern part of Montana was included in the newly established Oregon Territory in 1848. The whole of the present-day State was included in Idaho Territory in 1863, and was established as a separate territory in 1864 with essentially its present boundaries. Montana was admitted as a State on November 8, 1889.

In 1860 census coverage of present-day Montana was limited to two forts enumerated in Nebraska Territory and some settlers in the Bitter Root Valley enumerated in Washington Territory. In 1870 census coverage included all of the present State.

Montana Population Chart

Montana Population History

The first census in Montana was held in 1870, just after Montana was formally made a US State Territory (previously it had been a part of Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Dakota territories.) It recorded a population of 20,595. This was relatively small compared to other areas of the country, as the population explosion of the 1800s was slow to reach Montana.

However, increased migration helped to swell those numbers through the end of the 19th century. Just ten years later, in 1880, numbers of just over 20,000 had grown by just over 90% to 39,159 but the biggest spike in the history of Montana’s population was yet to come. The survey of 1890, held just after Montana became a full US state, showed an impressive increase of 265% that took the number of residents to 142,924.

Further increases followed but they began to slow down in the 1900s. In fact, the 1930 Census revealed a fall of just over 2% from the numbers declared ten years earlier. That ‘blip’ aside, steady growth dominated to the point where the population of Montana in 2016 has surpassed the 1 million mark.

Montana Population Growth

Montana's population growth has mainly been concentrated in its seven largest counties, with the heaviest growth in Gallatin County, while the city of Kalispell has seen a growth of over 40% in the last decade. This is expected to continue, as Montana's rural areas will continue to lose people while the urban areas grow.

Montana has a moderate population growth of 0.79%, which is about middle-of-the-road in the United States. Forecasts show Montana's population will grow 14% over the next 30 years, reaching 1.16 million by 2030.

It's also estimated that by 2030, Montana will be one of ten states in the country to have more people over the age of 65 than under the age of 18, and it will be one of only six states to have 25% of its population aged 65 and older, which could impact future growth.

Population Data via US Census

Montana Growth Rate

Montana Population Rank

Year Pop % Change
20201,086,0041.10%
20191,074,1671.11%
20181,062,3301.13%
20171,050,4931.14%
20161,038,656Infinity%
20161,023,391-0.48%
20151,028,3170.82%
20141,019,9310.79%
20131,011,9210.84%
20121,003,5220.67%
2011996,8660.64%
2010990,5070.94%
2000902,1951.22%
1990799,0650.16%
1980786,6901.26%
1970694,4090.29%
1960674,7671.33%
1950591,0240.55%
1940559,4560.40%
1930537,606-0.21%
1920548,8893.85%
1910376,0534.45%
1900243,3295.47%
1890142,92413.82%
188039,1596.64%
187020,5950.00%

Montana Facts

Montana Population in 2018Source: By Martin Kraft [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

  • Most of Montana was acquired by the US during the Lousiana Purchase of 1803.
  • Fort Benton was built in 1847 by the American Fur Company, and it is the oldest continuously-populated town in the state.
  • Thousands of people relocated near Grasshopper Creek following the discovery of gold in 1862.
  • The famous battle, Custer's Last Stand, took place in 1876 along the Little Bighorn River after the US Army came to move Native Americans to reservations.
  • Montana has approximately 100 different species of mammals -- more species than any other state in the US.
  • Montana has a total of 56 counties. Forty-six of these counties have 6 or fewer people per square mile, so they are designated as "frontier counties."
  • Montana is the only US state to share borders with three Canadian provinces.

Montana Population Density by County

Yellowstone County

  • Population158,980
  • Density60.38 per sq km
  • Growth Since 20107.16%
  • State Rank1
  • % of State15.13%

Montana Population Growth Rate by County

According to 2015 US Census Bureau estimates, there are several counties in the state of Montana that have show significant growth since the last official Census n 2010. The majority of these counties are located along the eastern border of Montana, with Richalnd County posting an astouding 22.69% population growth during the 5-year period. Fallon County, located further south, has reflected a population growth of 10.5%, while over to the west, Gallatin County posted 12.7% population growth.

In terms of declining populations, the highest rates were found in the center of the state. Judith Basin County reflected a population decline of 6.69%, closely followed by Golden Valley at 6.34%. Other surrounding counties, as well as counties in the northwest such as Lncoln County and Sanders County also had declining populations but at a smaller rate.

Population by Race

Race Population
White911,907
American Indian and Alaska Native67,222
Two or More Races26,522
Asian7,481
Some Other Race5,158
Black or African American4,260
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander841

Race Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey)

Montana Population Pyramid 2018

0%2%4%6%8% Male Population0%2%4%6%8% Female Population80757065605550454035302520151050

Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S0101

Montana Median Age

39.8


Total

38.7


Male

40.9


Female

Montana Adults

There are 798,245 adults, (170,906 of which are seniors) in Montana.

Montana Age Dependency

63.1

Age Dependency Ratio

27.2

Old Age Dependency Ratio

35.9

Child Dependency Ratio

Montana Sex Ratio

Female

509,200

49.76%

Male

514,191

50.24%

Montana Households and Families

Montana Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

Montana Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married82.6%17.4%
All67.2%32.8%
Male56.9%43.1%
Non Family52.1%47.9%
Female50%50%

67.2%

Rate of Home Ownership

Montana Households by Type

Type Count Average Size Owned
All412,6532.4167.2
Married203,8253.0382.6
Non Family155,9161.352.1
Female34,9703.3550
Male17,9423.2656.9

3.01

Average Family Size

2.41

Average Household Size

6%

Unmarried (Opposite Sex)

0.2%

Unmarried (Same Sex)

Montana Households

Montana Education

Montana Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade14,3152.05%
9th to 12th Grade35,3125.06%
High School Graduate207,92929.77%
Some College171,38224.54%
Associates Degree60,4248.65%
Bachelors Degree140,94520.18%
Graduate Degree68,1279.75%

Montana Educational Attainment by Race

Name Total High School Bachelors
White628,818589,233196,582
Native American35,89929,9684,447
Hispanic16,84614,1922,973
Multiple Races11,53810,5292,704
Asian4,6564,2672,149
Other Race2,8512,281377
Black2,4952,151670
Islander59252665

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 93.70%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 46.16%.

Montana Earnings by Educational Attainment

Name Average Male Female
Overall$31,261$38,037$25,663
Less Than High School$18,723$24,267$13,248
High School Grad$25,978$31,775$20,308
Some College$29,649$36,536$23,772
Bachelors Degree$38,869$47,322$32,135
Graduate Degree$52,200$62,280$46,949

$31,261

Average Earnings

$38,037

Average Male

$25,663

Average Female

Montana Language

Montana Language by Age

Montana Language

96.10% of Montana residents speak only English, while 3.90% speak other languages. The largest non-English language is Spanish, which is spoken by 1.34% of the population.

Montana Poverty

Montana Poverty by Race

Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
White869,093112,45612.94%
Native64,27622,74635.39%
Hispanic33,5837,55822.51%
Multiple25,6205,35320.89%
Asian7,1771,15316.07%
Other5,01492418.43%
Black3,86790423.38%
Islander783708.94%

14.89%

Overall Poverty Rate

13.81%

Male Poverty Rate

15.98%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Montana

The race most likely to be in poverty in Montana is Native, with 35.39% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Montana is Islander, with 8.94% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 3.27%. Among those working part-time, it was 21.03%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 21.19%.

Montana Poverty Rate by Education

Name Poverty
Less Than High School25.07%
High School14.31%
Some College11.99%
Bachelors or Greater5.30%

Montana Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Name Poverty
Female Unemployed38.65%
Male Unemployed32.19%
Female Employed9.97%
Male Employed7.89%

Montana Income

Montana Income by Household Type

Name Median Mean
Households$48,380$65,401
Families$63,214$79,987
Married Families$71,539$89,345
Non Families$28,320$39,119

Montana Marital Status

Montana Marital Status

Marriage Rates

51.7%

Overall Marriage Rate

52.0%

Male Marriage Rate

51.4%

Female Marriage Rate

Montana Married by Age and Sex

Montana Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45To54.

Montana Marital Status by Race

Montana Veterans

Montana Veterans by War

87,936

Number of Veterans

80,615

Male Veterans

7,321

Female Veterans

Name Veterans
Vietnam33,617
First Gulf War15,583
Second Gulf War12,789
Korea8,280
World War II4,352

Montana Veterans by Age

Name Veterans
65 to 7423,350
35 to 5419,452
75+19,362
55 to 6418,128
18 to 347,644

Montana Veterans by Race

Name Veterans % of Total
White82,22211.37%
Indian3,1927.30%
Hispanic1,9128.89%
2 or More1,4929.98%
Asian3936.58%
Other36210.74%
Black2729.07%
Hawaiian30.45%

Montana Veterans by Education

8.65%

Veteran Poverty Rate

29.99%

Veteran Disability Rate

Montana Employment Status

Montana Employment by Age

63.7%

Labor Force Participation

59.7%

Employment Rate

5.6%

Unemployment Rate

Montana Employment by Race

Montana Employment by Education

Montana Nativity

Montana Citizenship Status

Data Sources
  1. Montana Census & Economic Information Center
  2. US Census State Population Estimates - Most recent state estimates from the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program
  3. US Census County Population Estimates - Most recent county estimates from the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program
  4. American Community Survey (2009 - 2013)
  5. Census QuickFacts
  6. Historical Populations of States and Counties (1790 - 1990)