“Blue states” are states that have a more liberal population and culture, as opposed to the conservative “red states.” While there are many more red states than blue states, the blue states tend to have much higher populations, so they have higher numbers in indexes like the electoral college and the number of congressional representatives. The following states are generally liberal: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland Illinois, California, Oregon, Washington, and Hawaii.
There are also neutral states, usually referred to as “swing states” because these states could go either Democrat or Republican in an election. Candidates typically do most of their campaigning in the swing states, which include Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Colorado, Nevada, and Florida.
The most liberal state in the country is Massachusetts, where the equally progressive city of Boston is located. Next is Hawaii, followed by Vermont, Washington, New York, New Hampshire, California, Maryland, New Jersey, and Maine. This index of how liberal a state is is based on how many liberals there are, as compared to conservatives.
Just like some states can be more liberal than others, some cities are more liberal than others. These cities tend to have high minority populations and public expressions of LGBTQ+ acceptance. The most liberal city in the country is San Francisco, California, followed by Washington, DC; Seattle, Washington; Oakland, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Detroit, Michigan; New York City, New York; Buffalo, New York; and Baltimore, Maryland. Notice that all of these cities are in blue states.
States can change from liberal to conservative over time due to factors like immigration, empowerment of minority groups (which tend to support liberal policies over conservative ones), and taxation. New York, for example, used to be highly conservative but is now much more progressive.