Birmingham, Alabama Population 2020

209,880

Birmingham is a city located in the state of Alabama. It is the most populous city in the state, with a population of 209,880 inhabitants according to the most recent estimates. The last census in 2010 recorded the city’s population as 212,237. The city’s metro area has a population of over 1.1 million and accounts for about one-quarter of the state’s total population. The city was founded in 1871 and was once one of the primary industrial centers of the United States’ southern region. Today, while its industries have changed, it remains one of the country’s most important business and banking centers in the US.

Birmingham History

Birmingham was founded in 1871 through the merger of three farm towns. In its earliest years, it became a center for railroad transportation and mining, iron and steel industries. It was developed primarily to use immigrants for cheap labor, whereas other cities at this time were unionized. The city was named after Birmingham, England, which at the time was a leading industrial city.

The city began growing at a rapid rate, although a cholera outbreak and the stock market crash – both which occurred in the 1800s – did slow growth temporarily. However, the early 1900s saw extensive growth and the city became known as “The Magic City.” The Great Depression brought about another set of challenges for Birmingham. As its industries were struggling, farm laborers also flooded the city in hopes of finding employment. It was so bad that the president said that Birmingham was the “worst-hit town” in the US.

However, Birmingham bounced back fairly quickly as demand for steel during World War II boosted the economy. It was during this time that the city’s manufacturing sector also grew, while schools, parks, and museums were erected around the area. The city faced more controversy during the 1950s and 1960s when racially-charged bombings occurred to the homes of black families, and Birmingham became known as “Bombingham.” Martin Luther King, Jr. came to the city to take part in a non-violent demonstration and was jailed in the city, where he wrote the “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”

In more recent years, the city has focused on urban-renewal efforts and has upgraded its city center, developed the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and has completed other improvements throughout the city. The downtown area is in the process of being reconstructed, bringing in new housing, retail, restaurant and cultural options to bring in new residents and visitors. It has also become a leading business and banking center in the US.

Birmingham Population and Diversity Statistics

The city of Birmingham has an estimated population of over 217,000 inhabitants. The city stretches across over 148 square miles, and it has a population density of over 1,453 people per square mile. Breaking down the population from the 2010 census shows that almost three-quarters of Birmingham’s total population is Black or African America.

Breaking down the population by age shows that one-quarter of the population is under the age of 18. The largest age group is the 25 to 44 demographic, which makes up 30% of the population. The median age is 34 years. The city has a higher proportion of female to male inhabitants, with 85.7 males to every 100 females. Over one-quarter of the population lives below the federal poverty line, with almost 42% of children under the age of 18 living in poverty.

The city is not just ethnically diverse but also is very diverse when it comes to religion. It is the site of many Christian churches, as well as mosques, Hindu temples, and synagogues. The city has the highest ratio of Protestant followers in the country based on 2010 data.

The city also has a very high rate of crime and was ranked 20th in the country based on the highest crime rates. Violent crime has continued to rise over the last few years, particularly in low-income areas. The city is ranked the third most violent in the US.

Birmingham Population Growth

The city of Birmingham saw population growth through its earliest years, but since the 1970s has posted population losses in every 10-year census. Most recently, the population dropped by over 12% between 2000 and 2010. Estimates from 2017 show that some growth has occurred since the last census in 2010. The high crime rates have contributed to the falling population numbers. “White flight” has also occurred as people move from the city to the suburbs following the loss of jobs. Birmingham’s plans to revitalize the city could contribute to future population growth, and the current numbers showing that it’s on the upswing again could be a positive sign for this Alabama city.

Birmingham Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Birmingham was:

  • Black or African American: 70.52%
  • White: 25.29%
  • Two or more races: 1.57%
  • Other race: 1.45%
  • Asian: 0.93%
  • Native American: 0.22%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.02%

How Many People Live in Birmingham, Alabama?

209,880
Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
2018209,880-1,086-0.51%
2017210,966-470-0.22%
2016211,436-267-0.13%
2015211,7035940.28%
2014211,109-121-0.06%
2013211,2304810.23%
2012210,749-817-0.39%
2011211,566-177-0.08%
2010211,743-31,077-1.36%
2000242,820-23,148-0.91%
1990265,968-18,445-0.67%
1980284,413-16,497-0.56%
1970300,910-39,977-1.24%
1960340,88714,8500.45%
1950326,03758,4542.00%
1940267,5837,9050.30%
1930259,67880,8723.80%
1920178,80646,1213.03%
1910132,68594,27013.20%
190038,41512,2373.91%
189026,17823,09223.84%
18803,0860.00%
Year Total Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
20181,151,8012,1160.18%
20171,149,6852,0690.18%
20161,147,6162,8820.25%
20151,144,7343,2980.29%
20141,141,4362,7980.25%
20131,138,6385,0470.44%
20121,133,5913,0980.27%
20111,130,4931,7790.16%
20101,128,7140.00%

Population by Race

Race Population Percentage
Black or African American149,51270.52%
White53,62425.29%
Two or More Races3,3211.57%
Some Other Race3,0801.45%
Asian1,9730.93%
American Indian and Alaska Native4690.22%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander420.02%

Birmingham Population Pyramid 2020

Birmingham Median Age

35.8


Total

33.8


Male

37.8


Female

Birmingham Adults

There are 168,942 adults, (30,171 of whom are seniors) in Birmingham.

Birmingham Age Dependency

52.8

Age Dependency Ratio

21.7

Old Age Dependency Ratio

31

Child Dependency Ratio

Birmingham Sex Ratio

Female

112,651

53.13%

Male

99,370

46.87%

Birmingham Households and Families

Birmingham Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

Birmingham Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married68%32%
Male52.2%47.8%
All45.8%54.2%
Non Family38.7%61.3%
Female35.2%64.8%

45.8%

Rate of Home Ownership

Type Count Average Size Owned
All89,8802.2645.8
Non Family42,8301.2238.7
Married22,0573.0568
Female20,3793.3535.2
Male4,6143.2852.2

3.12

Average Family Size

2.26

Average Household Size

4.6%

Unmarried (Opposite Sex)

0.4%

Unmarried (Same Sex)

Birmingham Education

Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade5,2243.59%
9th to 12th Grade14,94110.27%
High School Graduate41,44428.50%
Some College34,27723.57%
Associates Degree11,6698.02%
Bachelors Degree23,61616.24%
Graduate Degree14,2629.81%

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Race

Name Total High School Bachelors
Black100,29984,86315,688
White38,08735,42620,027
Hispanic4,2132,449753
Other Race1,566929142
Asian1,4921,3671,138
Multiple Races1,3261,135376
Native American35931282
Islander25259

The highest rate of high school graduation is among islander people with a rate of 100.00%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 76.27%.

Name Average Male Female
Overall$29,311$31,973$26,610
Less Than High School$18,405$22,716$14,847
High School Grad$22,952$27,096$19,958
Some College$26,274$30,058$24,466
Bachelors Degree$44,049$51,490$40,520
Graduate Degree$54,204$59,028$52,301

$29,311

Average Earnings

$31,973

Average Male

$26,610

Average Female

Birmingham Language

Birmingham Language by Age

Birmingham Language

94.80% of Birmingham residents speak only English, while 5.20% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 3.20% of the population.

Birmingham Poverty

Birmingham Poverty by Race

Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Black146,42943,51729.72%
White46,1878,49318.39%
Hispanic7,4432,26130.38%
Multiple3,0621,12136.61%
Other2,8681,11738.95%
Asian1,79830917.19%
Native42717540.98%

27.23%

Overall Poverty Rate

25.36%

Male Poverty Rate

28.89%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Birmingham

The race most likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is Native, with 40.98% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is Asian, with 17.19% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 5.77%. Among those working part-time, it was 31.18%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 36.04%.

Name Poverty
Less Than High School34.80%
High School27.31%
Some College21.25%
Bachelors or Greater7.77%
Name Poverty
Female Unemployed60.71%
Male Unemployed42.61%
Female Employed14.76%
Male Employed9.67%

Birmingham Income

Birmingham Income by Household Type

Name Median Mean
Households$35,346$51,555
Families$44,332$61,983
Married Families$71,211$88,930
Non Families$25,276$38,676

Birmingham Marital Status

Birmingham Marital Status

Marriage Rates

28.1%

Overall Marriage Rate

30.7%

Male Marriage Rate

25.9%

Female Marriage Rate

Birmingham Married by Age and Sex

Birmingham Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 55-64.

Birmingham Marital Status by Race

Birmingham Veterans

12,801

Number of Veterans

11,371

Male Veterans

1,430

Female Veterans

War Veterans
Vietnam4,433
First Gulf War2,303
Second Gulf War1,985
Korea947
World War II430
Age Group Veterans
55 to 643,425
35 to 542,959
65 to 742,954
75+2,462
18 to 341,001

Birmingham Veterans by Race

Name Veterans % of Total
Black9,3778.18%
White3,2516.79%
Indian7418.14%
Hispanic450.87%
Other371.95%
2 or More351.77%
Asian271.43%

Birmingham Veterans by Education

13.57%

Veteran Poverty Rate

33.24%

Veteran Disability Rate

Birmingham Employment Status

60.1%

Labor Force Participation

53.9%

Employment Rate

10.2%

Unemployment Rate

Birmingham Place of Birth

Origin of Non Citizens

Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

78.06%

Born in Alabama

96.34%

Native Born

3.66%

Foreign Born

2.78%

Non Citizen

Place of Birth

96.34% of Birmingham residents were born in the United States, with 78.06% having been born in Alabama. 2.78% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.