Cleveland, Ohio Population 2018

Cleveland, or The Forest City, is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie about 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. In 2014, Cleveland has an estimated population of 390,000, which makes it the 45th largest city in the United States and the second-largest in Ohio after Columbus.

Cleveland has an estimated population of 390,000, down from 396,000 at the 2010 census and its record high of 914,000 in 1950. The city proper has a population density of 5,107 people per square mile. The Greater Cleveland area is the 28th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U.S. with a population of just over 2 million. The larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined Statistical Area (CSA) has a population of 3.5 million and it is the 15th largest CSA in the country.

Cleveland Demographics

According to the 2010 census, the racial makeup of Cleveland was:

  • African American: 53.3%
  • White: 37.3%
  • Asian: 1.8%
  • Native American: 0.3%
  • Other race: 4.4%
  • Two or more races: 2.8%
  • Hispanic or Latino of any race: 10.0%

Major ethnic groups include German (9.2%), Irish (8.2%), Poles (4.8%), Italians (4.6%), and English (2.8%). 4.5% of Cleveland's population was foreign-born as of 2000, with 41% born in Europe, 29% born in Asia, 22% born in Latin America, 5% in Africa and 1.9% in North America.

Cleveland is also home to several small communities of Slovaks, Slovenes, French, Hungarians, Arabs, Dutch, Czechs, Ukranians, Scottish, Russian, Scotch Irish, Croats, Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Romanians, Greeks and Lithuanians. At one time, Cleveland had the highest number of Hungarians outside of Budapest. Between just 1920 and 1960, the black population in the city rose from 35,000 to 251,000.

Cleveland History

Cleveland got its start in 1796, when surveyors for the Connecticut Land Company laid out the area into townships and a capital they called "Cleaveland" after the leader, General Moses Cleaveland. The village of Cleaveland was incorporated in 1814, and its prime waterfront location quickly presented itself as an advantage. The region grew rapidly after the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed in 1832, linking the Ohio River and the Great Lakes to Cleveland and the Atlantic Ocean. Growth picked up even further when the railroad links were added, and it was incorporated as a city in 1836.

With its prime location, Cleveland served as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes, which helped it develop as a major commercial center. It also became important in the American manufacturing industry at the beginning of the 20th century. Cleveland reached a population peak of 914,000 in 1950, but by the 1960s the economy had slowed and residents fled to the suburbs.

After years of decline, Cleveland is today viewed as a great example of revitalization, and it now ranks as one of the most livable cities in the United States.

Cleveland Population Growth

Between 2000 and 2010, Cleveland lost 17% of its population, and some neighborhoods -- including Glenville and Hough -- lost up to 38% of their population between 2000 and 2007, although downtown Cleveland has gained population. This puts Cleveland in the same category as Youngstown, Ohio and Detroit in terms of population decline.

Despite the bleak picture, Cleveland has been revitalizing its downtown area since the 1990's and more than $3.5 billion has been invested in redeveloping the area. Forbes recently ranked Cleveland as one of the top 15 emerging downtown cities in the country. In 2013, downtown Cleveland also saw record growth, both in terms of its economy and population. The city's core daily population has reached 125,000, which is the highest ever for the city.

Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
2017385,525-1,926-0.50%
2016387,451-1,558-0.40%
2015389,009-1,644-0.42%
2014390,653-902-0.23%
2013391,555-41-0.01%
2012391,596-1,127-0.29%
2011392,723-3,255-0.82%
2010395,978-82,425-1.87%
2000478,403-27,213-0.55%
1990505,616-68,206-1.26%
1980573,822-177,057-2.65%
1970750,879-125,171-1.53%
1960876,050-38,758-0.43%
1950914,80836,4720.41%
1940878,336-22,093-0.25%
1930900,429103,5881.23%
1920796,841236,1783.58%
1910560,663178,8953.92%
1900381,768120,4153.86%
1890261,353101,2075.02%
1880160,14667,3175.60%
187092,82949,4127.90%
186043,41726,3839.81%
185017,03410,96310.87%
18406,0714,97118.63%
18301,1005006.25%
18206000.00%

Cleveland Population in 2018Source: By No machine-readable author provided. Avogadro94~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims). [CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons

Population by Race

Race Population
Black or African American197,756
White156,912
Two or More Races13,786
Some Other Race11,051
Asian7,759
American Indian and Alaska Native1,821
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander80

Race Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey)

Cleveland Population Pyramid 2018

0%2%4%6%8% Male Population0%2%4%6%8% Female Population80757065605550454035302520151050

Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S0101

Cleveland Median Age

35.8


Total

34.5


Male

37.2


Female

Cleveland Adults

There are 299,657 adults, (50,591 of which are seniors) in Cleveland.

Cleveland Age Dependency

56.2

Age Dependency Ratio

20.3

Old Age Dependency Ratio

35.9

Child Dependency Ratio

Cleveland Sex Ratio

Female

202,046

51.92%

Male

187,119

48.08%

Cleveland Households and Families

Cleveland Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

Cleveland Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married69.5%30.5%
All41.9%58.1%
Male40.8%59.2%
Non Family35%65%
Female31.4%68.6%

41.9%

Rate of Home Ownership

Cleveland Households by Type

Type Count Average Size Owned
All167,0672.2541.9
Non Family82,7011.235
Female39,1473.4231.4
Married35,7263.1669.5
Male9,4933.2240.8

3.16

Average Family Size

2.25

Average Household Size

7.1%

Unmarried (Opposite Sex)

0.5%

Unmarried (Same Sex)

Cleveland Households

Cleveland Education

Cleveland Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade13,9115.46%
9th to 12th Grade41,07016.12%
High School Graduate84,46533.16%
Some College57,84622.71%
Associates Degree16,5116.48%
Bachelors Degree25,87710.16%
Graduate Degree15,0695.92%

Cleveland Educational Attainment by Race

Name Total High School Bachelors
Black122,39194,47610,951
White101,02783,76924,923
Hispanic23,15015,2342,185
Other Race6,6924,529575
Asian5,0833,6952,076
Multiple Races4,7563,693902
Native American1,219852151
Islander725136

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 82.92%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 50.00%.

Cleveland Earnings by Educational Attainment

Name Average Male Female
Overall$26,832$29,586$25,298
Less Than High School$16,018$19,269$13,337
High School Grad$23,184$26,375$20,543
Some College$26,261$29,424$24,949
Bachelors Degree$41,998$46,723$40,259
Graduate Degree$53,462$56,481$51,310

$26,832

Average Earnings

$29,586

Average Male

$25,298

Average Female

Cleveland Language

Cleveland Language by Age

Cleveland Language

87.44% of Cleveland residents speak only English, while 12.56% speak other languages. The largest non-English language is Spanish, which is spoken by 7.98% of the population.

Cleveland Poverty

Cleveland Poverty by Race

Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Black193,74283,98343.35%
White128,14830,86624.09%
Hispanic41,59416,03038.54%
Multiple13,3405,52241.39%
Other10,9403,93735.99%
Asian7,2102,29031.76%
Native1,73970840.71%
Islander802835.00%

35.98%

Overall Poverty Rate

34.06%

Male Poverty Rate

37.74%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Cleveland

The race most likely to be in poverty in Cleveland is Black, with 43.35% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Cleveland is White, with 24.09% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 5.57%. Among those working part-time, it was 37.49%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 47.12%.

Cleveland Poverty Rate by Education

Name Poverty
Less Than High School45.39%
High School29.71%
Some College26.07%
Bachelors or Greater11.76%

Cleveland Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Name Poverty
Female Unemployed64.10%
Male Unemployed51.93%
Female Employed18.44%
Male Employed13.19%

Cleveland Income

Cleveland Income by Household Type

Name Median Mean
Households$26,583$40,057
Families$32,488$46,470
Married Families$54,541$69,201
Non Families$19,937$31,848

Cleveland Marital Status

Cleveland Marital Status

Marriage Rates

25.3%

Overall Marriage Rate

26.8%

Male Marriage Rate

24.0%

Female Marriage Rate

Cleveland Married by Age and Sex

Cleveland Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 55To64.

Cleveland Marital Status by Race

Cleveland Veterans

Cleveland Veterans by War

20,906

Number of Veterans

19,163

Male Veterans

1,743

Female Veterans

Name Veterans
Vietnam7,490
First Gulf War2,637
Second Gulf War1,975
Korea1,784
World War II1,143

Cleveland Veterans by Age

Name Veterans
55 to 645,690
35 to 545,099
65 to 744,592
75+4,177
18 to 341,348

Cleveland Veterans by Race

Name Veterans % of Total
Black10,5477.25%
White9,6257.33%
Hispanic1,0303.67%
2 or More2984.53%
Other2172.79%
Indian15611.04%
Asian590.85%
Hawaiian45.56%

Cleveland Veterans by Education

17.54%

Veteran Poverty Rate

35.41%

Veteran Disability Rate

Cleveland Employment Status

Cleveland Employment by Age

58.5%

Labor Force Participation

48.3%

Employment Rate

17.3%

Unemployment Rate

Cleveland Employment by Race

Cleveland Employment by Education

Cleveland Place of Birth

Origin of Non Citizens

Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

72.95%

Born in Ohio

95.07%

Native Born

4.93%

Foreign Born

2.76%

Non Citizen

Place of Birth

95.07% of Cleveland residents were born in the United States, with 72.95% having been born in Ohio. 2.76% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Asia.