Houston, Texas Population 2018

Houston is the 4th largest city in the United States and the largest in Texas. The city also has a global economy and only New York City has more Fortune 500 headquarters. The 2010 Census showed that Houston was home to almost 2.1 million people within 599 square miles, although this number since increased. The estimated population for 2016 is 2.2 million.

Houston is one of the fastest growing cities in the United States and its population in 2016 is estimated to be 2,239,558.

Houston's population density is estimated to be 3,662 people per square mile (1,414 per square kilometer.) Houston is also the economic center of Houston-The Woodlands-Sugarland, which is the 5th largest metropolitan area in the United States with over 6 million people. 2012 was the first time Philadelphia was knocked out of the top 5, thanks to Houston's rapid growth.

Houston Demographics

Houston is a very multicultural city, partially due to its academic institutions, industry and status as a port city. Houston residents speak more than 90 languages, and it also has one of the youngest populations in the country due to the influx of immigrants in the state. It's estimated that there are 400,000 illegal aliensliving in the Houston area alone.

According to census data, the racial makeup of Houston was:

  • White: 50.5% (25.6% non-Hispanic)
  • Black or African American: 23.7%
  • American Indian: 0.7%
  • Asian: 6%
  • Pacific Islander: 0.1%
  • Other race: 15.2% (0.2% non-Hispanic)
  • Two or more races: 3.3%
  • Hispanic of any race: 43.8%

The non-Hispanic white population in Houston has halved since 1970, when it accounted for 62% of the population. It also seems the racial and ethnic diversity increases the further away from the center of the city you move.

Houston's Hispanic population is increasing rapidly as more Latin American immigrants move to the area to work. Houston now has the 3rd largest Hispanic population in the United States.

There is also a significant African American population in Houston, which has been the case for most of its history. From 1870 to 1890, black people accounted for nearly 40% of the city's population, although this ranged from 21 to 33% from 1910 to 1970.

There is also a fairly large population of refugees living in the city since the 1970s. Nearly 1,600 refugees arrive at the George Bush Intercontinental Airport every year from all over the world.

Houston History

In 1836, two real estate entrepreneurs from New York purchased a large area of land along Buffalo Bayou to found a city. The city name chosen was Sam Houston, after the general at the Battle of San Jacinto, who was elected as the president of Texas that year.

Houston was incorporated in 1837 and became the temporary capital of the Republic of Texas. By 1860, it was a major hub for exporting cotton, and its system of bayous was extended after the Civil War to allow the city to accept more commerce.

In 1901, oil was discovered nearby, which started the development of the still massive Texas petroleum industry. By 1910, Houston was home to 78,000 people, double its population just ten years before. By the 1950's, its economy shifted toward energy has large companies began relocating to Houston.

Since the recession of the 1990s, Houston has worked to diversify its economy and reduce dependence on petroleum.

Houston Population Growth

Houston's booming population growth has made it one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. From 2011 to 2012, Houston gained more than 34,000 people, which was the second largest numeric increase for a city in the country.

In 2013, the Houston Chronicle reported its growth shows no signs of slowing. People are still moving to the area for its plentiful jobs, education and housing, and many job sectors are growing.

By 2020, Houston's population is expected to grow from today's 2.162 million to 2.52 million. By 2030, the city will have 2.8 million residents, which means it should overtake Brooklyn.

Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
20172,312,7178,2350.36%
20162,304,48222,2470.97%
20152,282,23543,4401.94%
20142,238,79540,5511.84%
20132,198,24438,4201.78%
20122,159,82434,3741.62%
20112,125,45026,1941.25%
20102,099,256145,6250.72%
20001,953,631323,0781.82%
19901,630,55335,4150.22%
19801,595,138361,6032.60%
19701,233,535295,3162.77%
1960938,219342,0564.64%
1950596,163211,6494.48%
1940384,51492,1622.78%
1930292,352154,0767.77%
1920138,27659,4765.78%
191078,80034,1675.85%
190044,63317,0764.94%
189027,55711,0445.25%
188016,5137,1315.82%
18709,3824,5376.83%
18604,8452,4457.28%
18502,4000.00%

Houston Population in 2018Source: By Agsftw [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Population by Race

Race Population
White1,305,482
Black or African American511,398
Some Other Race220,148
Asian149,265
Two or More Races44,986
American Indian and Alaska Native8,047
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander1,256

Race Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey)

Houston Population Pyramid 2018

0%2%4%6%8%10% Male Population0%2%4%6%8%10% Female Population80757065605550454035302520151050

Data via US Census (2016 ACS 5-Year Survey): Table S0101

Houston Median Age

32.7


Total

32


Male

33.4


Female

Houston Adults

There are 1,673,715 adults, (219,577 of which are seniors) in Houston.

Houston Age Dependency

54.1

Age Dependency Ratio

15.1

Old Age Dependency Ratio

39

Child Dependency Ratio

Houston Sex Ratio

Female

1,117,788

49.89%

Male

1,122,794

50.11%

Houston Households and Families

Houston Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

Houston Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married61.1%38.9%
All43.2%56.8%
Male35%65%
Female32.7%67.3%
Non Family31.4%68.6%

43.2%

Rate of Home Ownership

Houston Households by Type

Type Count Average Size Owned
All831,1662.6643.2
Non Family327,1701.2631.4
Married318,4883.5261.1
Female136,2353.6832.7
Male49,2733.5335

3.46

Average Family Size

2.66

Average Household Size

6.1%

Unmarried (Opposite Sex)

0.5%

Unmarried (Same Sex)

Houston Households

Houston Education

Houston Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade189,57613.16%
9th to 12th Grade136,4659.47%
High School Graduate327,01722.70%
Some College268,22318.62%
Associates Degree70,3544.88%
Bachelors Degree274,49619.06%
Graduate Degree174,21512.10%

Houston Educational Attainment by Race

Name Total High School Bachelors
Hispanic552,903304,89963,697
White435,943416,605246,769
Black330,289287,63770,548
Other Race127,63365,61910,202
Asian106,50691,61060,512
Multiple Races22,59918,9717,955
Native American5,0163,615926
Islander886805211

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 95.56%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 56.82%.

Houston Earnings by Educational Attainment

Name Average Male Female
Overall$31,924$36,049$27,383
Less Than High School$19,725$23,060$14,329
High School Grad$24,269$27,009$20,164
Some College$31,186$36,162$26,757
Bachelors Degree$55,089$66,858$48,146
Graduate Degree$75,485$96,465$61,056

$31,924

Average Earnings

$36,049

Average Male

$27,383

Average Female

Houston Language

Houston Language by Age

Houston Language

52.01% of Houston residents speak only English, while 47.99% speak other languages. The largest non-English language is Spanish, which is spoken by 38.36% of the population.

Houston Poverty

Houston Poverty by Race

Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Hispanic984,581272,41927.67%
Black500,157133,73326.74%
Other218,43562,44528.59%
White552,33149,3308.93%
Asian146,44724,00516.39%
Multiple44,3418,94620.18%
Native7,9982,40030.01%
Islander1,192867.21%

21.87%

Overall Poverty Rate

19.74%

Male Poverty Rate

23.99%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Houston

The race most likely to be in poverty in Houston is Native, with 30.01% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Houston is Islander, with 7.21% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 5.91%. Among those working part-time, it was 24.98%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 31.70%.

Houston Poverty Rate by Education

Name Poverty
Less Than High School29.61%
High School20.90%
Some College14.13%
Bachelors or Greater5.86%

Houston Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Name Poverty
Female Unemployed43.95%
Male Unemployed34.04%
Female Employed12.45%
Male Employed9.54%

Houston Income

Houston Income by Household Type

Name Median Mean
Households$47,010$75,763
Families$52,127$86,013
Married Families$71,405$110,172
Non Families$37,125$57,211

Houston Marital Status

Houston Marital Status

Marriage Rates

41.5%

Overall Marriage Rate

43.0%

Male Marriage Rate

39.9%

Female Marriage Rate

Houston Married by Age and Sex

Houston Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 35To44.

Houston Marital Status by Race

Houston Veterans

Houston Veterans by War

74,266

Number of Veterans

67,549

Male Veterans

6,717

Female Veterans

Name Veterans
Vietnam23,330
Second Gulf War14,779
First Gulf War13,667
Korea7,203
World War II4,278

Houston Veterans by Age

Name Veterans
35 to 5418,413
65 to 7416,751
75+16,505
55 to 6412,374
18 to 3410,223

Houston Veterans by Race

Name Veterans % of Total
White44,6114.57%
Black24,1276.24%
Hispanic11,2521.68%
Other2,3041.50%
Asian1,4301.18%
2 or More1,3274.73%
Indian3335.56%
Hawaiian13411.61%

Houston Veterans by Education

11.30%

Veteran Poverty Rate

27.87%

Veteran Disability Rate

Houston Employment Status

Houston Employment by Age

68.2%

Labor Force Participation

63.2%

Employment Rate

7.4%

Unemployment Rate

Houston Employment by Race

Houston Employment by Education

Houston Place of Birth

Origin of Non Citizens

Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

51.85%

Born in Texas

71.00%

Native Born

29.00%

Foreign Born

20.66%

Non Citizen

Place of Birth

71.00% of Houston residents were born in the United States, with 51.85% having been born in Texas. 20.66% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.