Hyderabad is the largest city and capital of the southern Indian state Telangana. Hyderabad is located on the banks of the Musi River around artificial lakes. In 2014, the estimated population of Hyderabad is 8.7 million in 2014, which makes it the 4th most populous city in India. The 2018 estimates based on prior growth percentages push this number to over 9 million residents within the city.
City Size and Population Density
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) was created in 2007 to oversee the civic infrastructure of the 18 "circles" of the city. This increased the area of Hyderabad from 175 square kilometers to 650 square kilometers, and the population grew by 87%. The GHMC has a population of 10 million, which makes it the 6th most populous urban agglomeration in India. GHMC's population has grown from 7.7 million in 2011, showing substantial growth. Hyderabad has an estimated population of 8.7 million with a population density of 18,480 people per square kilometer (47,000/sq mi).
Most Hyderabadi are Telugu and Urdu speaking people, although there are minority communities of Tamil, Marathi, Kannada, Marwari, Malayali, Oriya, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar Pradesh.
Among the foreigners in the city, Hadhrami Arabs represent the majority, with sizeable populations of African Arabs, Armenians, Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans, and Turkish people. At the 2011 census, 24% of Hyderabadi were migrants from elsewhere in the country.
Hinduism is the most common religion practiced in the city (55.5%), followed by Muslims (41%), Christians (2.5%), Jains (0.5%), Sikhs (0.3%), Buddhists (0.02%) and other religions.
13% of the population of Hyderabad live below the poverty line. There are at least 1,476 slums in Hyderabad with a population of at least 1.7 million, 66% of whom live in the core of the city that made up Hyderabad before the expansion in 2007. The remaining people live in 491 tenements. Nearly one-quarter of the slum-dwellers in the city came from other parts of India in the 1990s, with at least 63% having lived in slums for at least a decade. Around 30% of the slums have basic service while others depend on general public services from the government.
The area of modern-day Hyderabad was first known as Golkonda and ruled by the Chalukya dynasty until 1075 CE. After the empire fell apart in the 11th century, it came under the rule of the Kakatiya dynasty, which was reduced to a vassal of the Khilji dynasty in the early 14th century. This lasted very briefly, and the Sultanate of Delhi took control in 1321 AD.
The modern history of the city started in 1518 when Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk declared independence from the Bahmani Sultanate. In 1589, Hyderabad was built on the Musi River. Muhammed Quli Qutub Shah, the fifth sultan of the dynasty, dedicated the city to his wife, Bhagyamathi, and ordered the construction of a monument in the city that later became its icon (the Charminar in 1591). Through the 17th century, Hyderabad became powerful and known as a center for successful diamond trade.
In 1687, Golconda Fort, which protected the city, was destroyed by the Mughal prince Aurangzeb. Hyderabad then fell in importance, and its diamond trade was destroyed as the city eventually fell into ruins. Hyderabad came under the rule of the Nizams in the early 18th century, and it once more saw strong growth.
When the French and British took control of large parts of India, the Nizams allied with each side alternatively and won the friendship of the Western invaders without being forced to give up power. This allowed Hyderabad to be ruled by the Nizam and it became the largest princely state in the country with its currency, mint, postal system and more.
When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizams attempted to become independent but were defeated by the Indian army and Hyderabad became a state of India a year later.
Hyderabad is still known as the City of Pearls, as it was historically known as a diamond and pearl trading center. Many bazaars in the city have been open for centuries.
Hyderabad Population Growth
Hyderabad is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in all of India, which has led to many issues in terms of employment, housing and essential services. There has been a steep increase in Hyderabad's slum population, which is attributed to ineffective urban planning and greater rural-to-urban migration. There has been a 264% increase in the slum population in and around the city in the last decade, with 30% of the city's people believed to live in a slum in 2014.