Jakarta, or the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital of Indonesia, the largest city in the country, and one of the most populous urban agglomerations on earth. Jakarta is currently the largest city in Southeast Asia, and its metro area is so large it has its own name: Jabodetabek (for the initials of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi). Jakarta is located on the coast of Java with an estimated 2016 population of over 10 million people.
Jakarta has an estimated population of over 10 million people in 2016, up from 9,607,787 recorded during the 2010 Census. Jakarta is now considered a global city and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Interestingly, Jakarta reported the highest return on investment for luxury real estate in 2014 compared to any other city on earth.
City Size and Population Density
The metropolitan area of Jabodetabek has a population that exceeds 30 million with a total area of 4,384 square kilometers (1,693 sq mi). The city proper has a very high population density of 14,464 people per square kilometer (37,460/ sq mi), while the metro area has a density of 4,383 people/sq km (11,353/sq mi).
Greater Jakarta Area
The population of Jabodetabek is broken down as follows:
- Jakarta (9.59 million)
- Bogor Regency (4.76 million)
- Tangerang Regency (2.84 million)
- Bekasi Regency (2.63 million)
- Bekasi Municipality (2.38 million)
- Tangerang Municipality (1.80 million)
- Depok Municipality (1.75 million)
- South Tangerang Municipality (1.30 million)
- Bogor Municipality (950,000)
Geography and Climate
Jakarta is located at the mouth of the Ciliwung Riveron Jakarta Bay on the northwest coast of Java, which is by an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is flat alluvial plains. Some areas are below sea level and subject to flooding while the south of Jakarta is my hilly and less prone to flooding. Jakarta is also sinking nearly 17 cm (6.7 inches) each year, which has worsened flooding in the area. This has caused the national government to consider moving the Indonesian capital to a different city.
Jakarta's climate has tropical monsoons. The wet season is from October to May while June thorugh September is the dry season. The city is tropical and humid with temperatures ranging from 75 to 93 °F (24 to 34 °C) and a humidity level between 75 and 85 percent a majority of the year.
The executive branch of Jakarta is run by a deputy governor and an officially elected governor. This local government is made of five smaller administrative cities, each led by a mayor, as well as an administrative regency. Unlike other cities in Indonesia, Jakarta actually has mayors who are appointed by the governor instead of elected by the people.
The legislative branch is made of 106 members who are directly elected by the citizens of Jakarta. Jakarta sends 21 different members to the People's Representative Council, and the representatives are elected from Jakarta's three national electoral districts.
In law enforcement and the judicial system, the Polda Metro Jaya oversees the law, security, and order of Jakarta. The Regional Chief of Police, or the Kapolda, leads it and is also the Inspector General of Police.
Jakarta is an important alpha world city with major financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, and corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. The city is the home of six Forbes Global 2000 companies, two Fortune 500 companies, and four Unicorn companies, and the city's GRP was about $483.4 billion USD.
Jakarta's major markets are manufacturing, financial services, and public retail markets. Its manufacturing industries include many iron foundries, repair shops, soap makers, and printing works. In the financial industry, there are major industrial development and construction of new homes on the outskirts of town and major commerce and banking in the center of the city. The Indonesian Chamber of Commerce promotes trade, and Jakarta is about one-fourth of Indonesia’s trade and services and two-thirds of its banking and financial sectors. The local markets serve a majority of the population, such as the markets of Pasar Senen to the east of the central city and Pasar Glodok in the Kota area. These markets are large retail areas, but there are also small neighborhood markets as well.
According to date from the 2000 Census, the ethnic population of Jakarta was:
- Javanese: 35.16%
- Native Jakarta / Betawi: 27.65%
- Sundanese: 15.27%
- Chinese: 5.53%
- Batak: 3.61%
- Minangkabau: 3.18%
- Malays: 1.62%
The city of Jakarta has the highest number of overseas Chinese in Indonesia. The city has a diverse Sumatran population, with more than 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau, and 155,000 Malays.
Islam is by far the most common religion in Jakarta, accounting for almost 86% of the population according to data from the 2010 Census. This is followed by Protestantism (7.5%), Buddhism (3.3%), Catholicism (3.15%), Hinduism (0.21%) and Confucianism (0.06%).
Jakarta Age and Gender Statistics
The age breakdown of Jakarta is as follows:
0-14 years: 25.02%
15-24 years: 16.99%
25-54 years: 42.4%
55-64 years: 8.58%
65 years and over: 7.01%
Amongst the entire population, there is approximately one male for every one female in Jakarta.
Education in Jakarta
Many new elementary schools and secondary schools have been built, and old buildings have been renovated, so the education system is quite established. In terms of higher education, there are many vocational schools and over 100 universities, with the largest university being the University of Indonesia.
Jakarta's official language is Indonesian, which is also the most dominant language. English is its second language, with many older people speaking Dutch and Portuguese. Ethnic groups of Jakarta use a mother language at home such as Betawi language, Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Madurese, Batak, Minangkabau, Chinese, Arabic, and Tamil.
The area around present-day Jakarta was first part of the 4th-century Sundanese kingdom called Tarumanagara, which was one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in the country. After its decline, its territories -- including this area -- became a part of the Kingdom of Sunda, which in turn became a major trading port by the 14th century.
The first Europeans came to the area in 1513 when Portuguese ships were looking for a spice route. Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal, allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rise of the Sultanate of Demak in central Java. Just five years later, Fatahillah, a Demak general, attacked and conquered the area and drove out the Portuguese, renaming the region Jayakarta, which became part of the Sultanate of Banten.
Dutch ships began arriving in Jayakarta in 1596, and in 1602, the English East India Company made its first voyage and built a trading post, which became the center of English trade in the country until the late 17th century.
As relationships between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch soured, his soldiers and the English attacked the Dutch fortress and were defeated by the Dutch, who burned the English fort in return. This victory allowed the Dutch to consolidate power and rename the city Batavia in 1619. Growing opportunities in the new capital of the Dutch colony attracted Chinese and Indonesian immigrants. By 1930, the city of Batavia had a population of more than 500,000.
After World War II, Batavia was renamed Jakarta, a shortened version of Jayakarta, after Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch in 1946.
Jakarta Population Growth
With only legal residents counted, the population of Jakarta doubled from 4.5 million in 1970 to more than 10 million in 2016, while the population of the Jabodetabek region has grown from 8.2 million to over 30 million during the same period. The growth rate of the area far exceeded government estimates and the national average, which was a modest growth of 1% from 2000 to 2010, compared to the 3.6% rate of the Jakarta region. The 2010 census found that all areas within the DKI Jakarta had a positive growth rate in the last decade, with the slowest growth in Central Jakarta.
Jakarta is now becoming starved for resources by its ever-growing population. Jakarta was designed to handle 800,000 people when founded by the Dutch, although it is now home to up to 12 million people during the work week, with 250,000 new residents coming to the Jabodetabek region each year. This has given rise to many slums without access to water and other resources.
By 2020, the population of Greater Jakarta is expected to grow from 25 million to 35 million, with a mass migration that will further worsen the problems for residents, including poor sanitation, a lack of housing and transportation issues. The population of the city is expected to grow to 16 million during the same time.