London Population 2018

The latest official estimate of the population of London comes from the Office for National Statistics. According to their data, the estimated population of Greater London in 2016 is 8,787,892. The metro population in 2018 is estimated to be as much as 10.66 million according to the UN's World Urbanization Prospects.

The Census in the United Kingdom takes place every 10 years, with the most recent one completed in 2011. According to this census, the population of London was 8,173,941. The next census in England and Wales is scheduled for 2021.

London's population makes it by far the largest city in the United Kingdom. The second largest city in the UK - Birmingham - has a population of 1.1 million. London is also the largest city in the European Union and is more than twice as large as its nearest rival, Berlin.

It is the third largest city in Europe, behind Istanbul (14.8 million) and Moscow (10.3 million), and the 27th most populous metro area in the world, slightly larger than Lima, Peru.

Different definitions of London

Estimating London's population is made more complicated by the various ways of defining the city. Here are just a few of the ways of breaking down London's geography along with estimates of their population.

  • City of London 7,375 (2011 Census)
  • Inner London 3,231,901 (2011 Census)
  • Outer London 4,942,040 (2011 Census)
  • Greater London 8,173,941 (2011 Census)
  • London Metropolitan Area 10-18 million (number of residents depends on the definition used)

Generally, throughout this article, we've used the term London for simplicity, but when we're referring to modern day London, we really mean Greater London. The City of London is a much smaller area (just over a square mile) with less than 10,000 residents, although over 300,000 people commute there for work.

London's Population History

Although there had been settlements in the area for centuries, London first became recognizable as a major population center during the Roman occupation of Britain. Londinium, as it was known, quickly became the capital of Rome's Britannia province, and by the 2nd century AD, Londinium was a thriving trade center with a population of around 60,000 people.

After the Romans withdrew, the settlement of Londinium was more or less abandoned in favor of Lundenwic, located a mile down the river. Lundenwic had a reduced population of around 10,000 people, and it's vulnerability to Viking raids eventually led to it being gradually moved back east to the old Londinium site to take advantage of the old Roman city walls.

From there, the city prospered and grew steadily again, reaching a population of 100,000 for the first time, somewhere around 1500 AD. As the British Empire grew, so did London's importance as one of the world's major trading cities, and shortly after 1800, London reached the 1,000,000 resident milestone for the first time.

Industrialization led to increased urbanization and this, combined with London's increasing prominence, led to some dramatic population increases. According to census records, the number of people living in London increased more than fivefold from 959,300 in 1801 to 5,572,012 in 1891. For much of the 19th century and the early 20th century, London was the largest city in the world.

The first half of the 20th century saw sustained and fairly rapid growth, and London's population reached its highest point in 1939. By the outbreak of the second world war, 8,615,245 people were living in London, although by then it had just lost its status as the largest city in the world to New York.

From the end of the World War II until the 1980s, London saw its population gradually decline, as the city lost its status as the hub of Empire and one of the world's greatest trading cities. By the time the 1981 census was taken, the number of people living in London had fallen to just 6,607,513, a decline of more than two million, or around 25%, in just four decades.

However, a population boom in the 1980s occurred, and increasing prosperity combined with increased immigration has once again resulted in an increase in population. Just 20 years later, the population had increased to 7,172,036 at the time of the 2001 census, and further increases are expected to push the population past 9 million by 2021. The current 2021 projection puts the London population at 9,221,300 according to the London Datastore.

Ethnicity in London

London as a city is considerably more diverse than the rest of the United Kingdom. Across England and Wales, 86% of the population is white based on the 2011 Census, but in London that number falls to 69.7%. The white proportion of London's population increases when traveling away from the city center.

The section on ethnicity below, compiled using 2011 census data from the ONS provides details of the ethnicity of London residents compared to residents of England and Wales.

London's diversity can also be seen in statistics for London residents' country of birth. Of the 8.88 million people living in London at the time of the most recent UK estimates, 3.32 million (37%) were born outside of the United Kingdom. Of these, approximately a third were born within European Union countries, while the other two thirds were born outside of the European Union. The most common country of birth for London residents outside of the UK is India. According to the 2011 census, 262,247 people living in London were born in India.

Religion in London

London is the most diverse area within the UK when it comes to religious beliefs, with the highest percentage of people identifying as Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu or Jewish. The latest data from the 2011 census recorded that 48.4% of Londoners considered themselves to be Christian, 12.39% considered themselves Muslim, 5% Hindu, 1.82% Jewish, 1.5% Sikh, 1% Buddhist and 0.6% Other. A large proportion, 20.73% of respondents, stated that they followed no religion. You can see the specific numbers from the 2011 census in the religion section below.

London Population in 2018Source: 0x010C

London Population Data (Urban Area)

Year Population Growth Rate (%) Growth
203011,467,0000.46%260,000
202511,207,0000.65%358,000
202010,849,0000.90%192,000
201810,657,0001.10%344,000
201510,313,0001.24%614,000
20109,699,0001.24%580,000
20059,119,0001.15%506,000
20008,613,0000.69%290,000
19958,323,0000.66%269,000
19908,054,0000.52%206,000
19857,848,0000.49%188,000
19807,660,0000.30%114,000
19757,546,0000.10%37,000
19707,509,000-0.93%-360,000
19657,869,000-0.81%-327,000
19608,196,000-0.20%-82,000
19558,278,000-0.20%-83,000
19508,361,0000.00%0
London Population Growth

London's 2018 population is now estimated at 10,657,000. In 1950, the population of London was 8,361,000. London has grown by 344,000 since 2015, which represents a 1.10% annual change. These population estimates and projections come from the latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects. These estimates represent the Urban agglomeration of London, which typically includes London's population in addition to adjacent suburban areas.

Ethnicity in London vs Rest of United Kingdom

Place White Asian Black Mixed Other
East Midlands89.3%6.5%1.8%1.9%0.6%
East of England90.8%4.8%2%1.9%0.5%
England and Wales86%7.5%3.3%2.2%1%
London59.8%18.5%13.3%5%3.4%
North East95.3%2.9%0.5%0.9%0.4%
North West90.2%6.2%1.4%1.6%0.6%
South East90.7%5.2%1.6%1.9%0.6%
South West95.4%2%0.9%1.4%0.3%
Wales95.6%2.3%0.6%1%0.5%
West Midlands82.7%10.8%3.3%2.4%0.9%
Yorkshire and the Humber88.8%7.3%1.5%1.6%0.8%

Religion in London (2011 Census Data)

Religion Persons Percentage
Christian3,957,98448.42%
None1,694,37220.73%
Muslim1,012,82312.39%
Not Stated692,7398.47%
Hindu411,2915.03%
Jewish148,6021.82%
Sikh126,1341.54%
Buddhist82,0261.00%
Other47,9700.59%
Data Sources
  1. London Assembly - London information and statistics
  2. London Datastore - Analysis of London census data
  3. Population Estimates for UK
  4. Table KS209EW: Religion 2011 Census
  5. World Urbanization Prospects - United Nations population estimates and projections of major Urban Agglomerations