Tokyo Population 2015
According to the 2010 Japanese census, the 23 wards that make up the city of Tokyo had a population of 8,949,447. The 23 wards made up the boundaries of the historic city of Tokyo, which was officially dissolved in 1943 when it merged with the prefecture. Today, Tokyo extends way beyond the original city boundaries, and is one of the largest urban sprawls in the world, which doesn't make it easy to explain exactly how many people live in Tokyo.
The Tokyo prefecture, into which Tokyo city was merged, was home to 13,047,446 people in 2010. But the story doesn't end there -- the Tokyo urban area extends beyond even the prefecture's boundaries.
According to a 2013 estimate of Tokyo's population, the metropolis is now home to 13,282,271 people, or 9,055,257 in all of the 23 wards. This does not include the population of the metro area, which we will get into in a moment.
Tokyo Population 2014
The population of Tokyo in 2013 may be a bit hard to understand because of the way the figures are laid out. The 23 wards claim a population of 9.05 million, but the metropolis has a population of 13,282,271. The greater Tokyo metropolitan area, which is spread over 3 prefectures, is much larger with a population that's estimated at close to 35 million. That means the greater Tokyo area is home to 25% of Japan's population, and it's the most populous metropolitan area in the world. The metropolitan area is so large, in fact, that it is more than half as large again as the world's next largest metropolitan area, Seoul.
To give you an idea of what each looks like, take a look at the three maps below.
Tokyo Population History
Tokyo has always been Japan's largest city, and one of the mightiest cities in Asia if not the world. It used to be known as Edo, and grew from a small village to become, in the 1720s, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tokyo">the first city in Asia with a population of more than one million people</a>. Renamed Tokyo in 1868, the city continued to grow rapidly. By 1900, its population had passed two million for the first time and, by the start of the 1940s, the wider metropolitan area was home to more than seven million people.
The second world war saw the only major population decline in the city's history (although there have been other smaller declines over the years). Tokyo's population halved in just five years and, when Japan surrendered in 1945, its population was just 3.5 million. Gradual attrition accounted for much of the decline, although the massive Allied air raids also took a staggering toll – <a href="http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/firebombing-of-tokyo">at least 100,000 were killed in the US Airforce firebombing of Tokyo on 9 March 1945, and around a million were estimated to have been left homeless</a>.
The population rapidly grew again after the war, perhaps indicating that many of its residents had temporarily left the city. It took less than a decade for the city to recover to its pre-war population levels and, in 1956, Tokyo's population passed 8 million for the first time. Since then, growth has been steady, rather than spectacular and, although Tokyo's economy has (like Japan's) under-performed in recent years, its population continues to slowly rise.
The latest census data, used above, is from 2010. There is no firm data on the population of Tokyo in 2013, so the figures listed here are estimates based on the city's growth rate.
Tokyo Wards by Population
The area commonly known as Tokyo city is, as noted above, not really a single city. Instead it is a a collection of 23 different smaller cities, known as wards, each independently administered. Here is a table, listing the name of each ward and its population, as recorded in 2007.<table><thead><tr><th>Name</th><th>Population</th><th>Density (people per sq km)</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr class="odd"><td> Setagaya</td><td>855,416</td><td>14,728</td></tr><tr><td> Nerima</td><td>702,202</td><td>14,581</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Ota</td><td>674,590</td><td>11,345</td></tr><tr><td> Edogawa</td><td>661,386</td><td>13,265</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Adachi</td><td>629,392</td><td>11,831</td></tr><tr><td> Suginami</td><td>534,981</td><td>15,725</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Itabashi</td><td>529,059</td><td>16,446</td></tr><tr><td> Koto</td><td>436,337</td><td>10,963</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Katsushika</td><td>428,066</td><td>12,287</td></tr><tr><td> Shinagawa</td><td>353,887</td><td>15,576</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Kita</td><td>330,646</td><td>15,886</td></tr><tr><td> Nakano</td><td>312,939</td><td>20,098</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Shinjuku</td><td>309,463</td><td>16,975</td></tr><tr><td> Meguro</td><td>267,798</td><td>18,218</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Toshima</td><td>256,009</td><td>19,428</td></tr><tr><td> Sumida</td><td>237,433</td><td>16,079</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Shibuya</td><td>205,512</td><td>13,337</td></tr><tr><td> Minato</td><td>205,196</td><td>10,088</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Bunkyo</td><td>194,933</td><td>16,009</td></tr><tr><td> Arakawa</td><td>194,777</td><td>18,262</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Taito</td><td>168,277</td><td>16,139</td></tr><tr><td> Chuo</td><td>104,997</td><td>10,345</td></tr><tr class="odd"><td> Chiyoda</td><td>43,802</td><td>3,763</td></tr></tbody></table>
<em>(Note: Except where indicated, data in this section is from the <a href="http://www.metro.tokyo.jp/ENGLISH/PROFILE/overview03.htm">Tokyo Metropolitan Government</a>.)</em>
Tokyo is a major commuter city. That means that many of the people in the city at any one time don't actually live in the city itself; they commute in each day for work. In 2005, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government estimated the nighttime and daytime population of the city, finding that although the city's population was around 14.98 million in the daytime, this decreased to 12.42 million in the middle of the night. That means that, every day, more than two and a half million people commute into Tokyo.
When it comes to working age people, the labor force is divided as follows: Clerical, Technical and Management (44.5%), Sales and Services (29.0%), Manufacturing and Transport (22.7%) and Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (0.4%).
Tokyo is, by most measures, the richest city in the world. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_GDP">Its total GDP in 2005 was $1.9 billion</a>; that's $600 million higher than the next richest city, New York. When adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the difference between Tokyo and New York narrows : <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Tokyo_Area#GDP_.28purchasing_power_parity.29_2005">in 2005 Tokyo had a PPP GDP of $1.191 billion</a>, compared to $1.133 for New York.
The age breakdown of Tokyo's population is, as you would expect, skewed towards working age. The most recent official demographics for Tokyo were released between 2005 and 2007, and they show that 69.3% of Tokyo residents are aged 15-64. Befitting a country with one of the world's longest life expectancies, there is also a high proportion of retired people in Tokyo: 18.9% of people were aged 65 or over. The remaining 11.8% of residents are children aged 0-14.
Life expectancy in Tokyo is slightly higher than the national average of 78.79 years for men and slightly lower than the average of 85.75 years for women. <a href="http://stats-japan.com/t/kiji/11415">Men</a> in Tokyo can expect to live for 79.36 years and <a href="http://stats-japan.com/t/kiji/11421">women</a> for 85.70 years.
Tokyo Population Growth
Japan as a country is expected to rapidly decline in population thanks to little immigration, a rapidly aging population and a very low fertility rate. Japan is today the oldest country in the world, and Tokyo is no exception to the trends the country as a whole is following.
A <a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/9519203/Tokyo-population-to-halve-in-next-90-years.html">recent study by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government</a>, which included a group of academics and city officials, estimated the population of Tokyo in 2100. The group estimates that Tokyo's population will be just 7.13 million, compared to 13.16 million as of the 2010 census. They also predicted the city will peak at 13.35 million in 2020 before a relentless downslide. Meanwhile, Japan's population as a whole will decline by over 61% by 2100.
Meanwhile, the <a href="http://www.newgeography.com/content/003068-tokyo-population-swan-dive-predicted">Japan Times</a> forecasted that the entire population of the Prefecture of Tokyo, which is the central jurisdiction of the metropolitan region, will be cut in half between 2010 and 2100.
This means that Tokyo's population is expected to halve in the next 90 years, and by 2100, 3.27 million of the 7.13 million residents in the city will be over the age of 65. The working population of the country, which is largely concentrated in Tokyo, will age, and Tokyo's place as an international city will be at risk.