Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write Greek since the late 9th or early 8th century BC. It is the direct or indirect ancestor of all modern European alphabets.

The Greek alphabet was derived from the North Semitic alphabet and modified to be more efficient and accurate for writing non-Semitic language by adding new letters and removing others. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. In Archaic and Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many variants.

There are 24 letters in the Greek alphabet, with both uppercase and lowercase forms. The Semitic letters that represented only consonants, ‘ales, he, yod, ‘akin, and van, became the Greek letters alpha, epsilon, iota, omicron, and upsilon. These represent a, e, i, o, and u, respectively. Greek was originally written from right to left, like its Semitic forebears, but after 500 BC, it was written from left to right.

Upper
Lower
Pronunciation
English Equiv.
ΑαAHL-fahA
ΒβVEE-tahB
ΓγGHAH-mahG
ΔδTHEL-tahD
ΕεEHP-see-lonE
ΖζZEE-tahZ
ΗηEE-tahE
ΘθTHEE-tahTh
ΙιYO-tahI
ΚκKAH-pahK
ΛλLAHM-thahL
ΜμmeeM
ΝνneeN
ΞξkseeX
ΟοOH-mee-kronO
ΠπpeeP
Ρρroh, roeR, Rh
Σσ,ς *SEEGH-mahS
ΤτtahfT
ΥυEWP-see-lonU
ΦφfeePh
ΧχheeKh
ΨψpseePs
Ωωoh-MEH-ghahM