Hindi Alphabet

Modern Hindi is written in Devanāgarī script, which is made of two Sanskrit words, Deva (“god”) and Nagari (“of urban origin”). Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India, Nepal, Singapore, and South Africa. Worldwide, there are about 600 million Hindi speakers, 342 of whom are native speakers. Devanāgarī is the fourth-most widely adopted writing system worldwide, being used for over 120 languages.

Hindi was first written in ancient India around the 4th century AD in Brahmi script. Since the 11th century, it has been written in the Devanāgarī script. John Gilchrist’s Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language was the first printed book in Hindi, published in 1796.

The traditional Hindi alphabet is considered to have 33 consonants and 13 vowels. However, as agreed by the Indian government, the current standard Hindi alphabet has 35 consonants and 11 vowels.

Hindi Symbol
Letter Type
English Sound
Pronunciation
independent vowelaas in apple
independent vowel[aa]as in hat
independent vowel[e]as in energy
independent vowel[i]as in history
independent vowel[u]as in ultimate
independent vowel[oo]as in food
independent vowel[a]as in auto
independent vowel[ae]as in may
independent vowel[o]as in mow
independent vowel[ao]as in haul
अंindependent vowel[am]
अःindependent vowel[a:]
independent vowel[ri]vee
independent vowel[rr]
dependent vowel[aa]
िdependent vowel[i]as in ice
dependent vowel[ii]as in fleet
dependent vowel[u]
dependent vowel[uu]
dependent vowel[r]
dependent vowel[rr]
dependent vowel[e]
dependent vowel[e]
dependent vowel[e]
dependent vowel[ai]
dependent vowel[o]
dependent vowel[o]
dependent vowel[o]
dependent vowel[au]
constant[k]as in cop
constant[kha]as in call
constant[g]as in gone
constant[gha]as in toga
constant[nga]as in nod
constant[ca]as in calm
constant[chha]as in chalk
constant[ja]as in yarn
constant[jha]as in job
constant[nya]as in yawn
constant[ta]as in tardy
constant[thh]as in that
constant[da]as in dot
constant[dh]as in dog
constant[n]as in knob
constant[t]as in toffee
constant[tha]as in thus
constant[d]as in dawn
constant[dha]
constant[na]
constant[p]
constant[fa]
constant[b]
constant[bha]
constant[ma]
constant[y]
constant[r]
constant[la]
constant[v]
constant[sha]
constant[shha]
constant[sa]
constant[ha]