Persian Alphabet

The Persian alphabet is used for the Persian language spoken in Iran (Western Persian) and Afghanistan (Dari Persian). The Persian language spoken in Tajikistan is written in the Tajik alphabet instead of the Persian alphabet. The Persian alphabet is also known as the Perso-Arabic script.

The Muslim conquest of Persia happened during the 7th century AD, resulting in Arabic becoming the language of government and religion in Persia for two centuries. As a result, the Modern Persian script is directly derived from the Arabic script. The main difference between the alphabets is that the Persian alphabet has a couple of additional letters.

There are 32 letters in the Persian alphabet. Persian script is written from right to left and in cursive, meaning that the letters tend to be attached. Unfortunately, this also means that the letters’ appearances change depending on their position. The positions are initial (joined on the left), medial (joined on both sides), and final (joined on the right side).

English Sound
Letter Name
End of Word
Inbetween 2 Letters
Initial Letter
Standing Alone
‘ā’ and initial vowels ‘a’, ‘e’ and ‘o’alef*ــاــااآ or ا
bbeــبــبــبــب
ppeــپــپــپــپ
tteــتــتــتــت
sseــثـثــثــث
jjimــجـجــجــج
chcheــچــچــچــچ
hheــحــحــحــح
khkheــخــخــخــخ
ddāl*ــدــددد
zzāl*ــذــذذذ
rre*ــرــررر
zze*ــزــززز
zhzhe*ــژــژژژ
ssinــســســســس
shshinــشــشــشــش
ssādــصــصــصــص
zzādــضــضــضــض
tــطــطــطــط
zــظــظــظــظ
‘ (a)‘ainــعــعــعــع
ghghainــغــغــغــغ
ffeــفــفــفــف
qqāfــقــقــقــق
kkāfــکــکــکــک
ggāfــگــگــگــگ
llāmــلــلــلــل
mmimــمــمــمــم
nnunــنــنــنــن
v, w, u & ovāv*ــوــووو
hheــهــهــهــه
yyeــیــیــیــی

Persian Alphabet