Polish Alphabet

The Polish alphabet, or abecadło, is the script of the Polish language. It is based on the Latin alphabet. There are about 40 million Polish speakers worldwide, and it is the official language of Poland and a recognized minority language in Czechia, Slovakia, Romania, and Ukraine.
 Poles adopted the Latin alphabet in the 12th century. Polish first appeared in writing in the “Gniezno papal bull” in 1136.

The Polish alphabet has 32 letters: 23 consonants and nine vowels. There are some diacritics:

  • The acute accent, or kreska, for ć, ń, ó, ś, ź.
  • The overdo, or kropka, for ż.
  • The tail, or ogonek, for ą, ę.
  • The stroke for ł.

Unlike other languages, like French, Spanish, and German, Polish letters with diacritics are treated as fully individual letters in the alphabet. The letters q, v, and x are not used in native Polish words but for foreign words and commercial names.

Upper/Lower
English Sound
Pronunciation
A auas in fun
Ą ąon, omas in long, or tom before 'b' or 'p'
B bbas in bat
C ctsas in bits
Ć ćchas in cheek
D ddas in dog
E eeas in red
Ę ęen, emas in sense, or gem before 'b' or 'p'
F ffas in far
G ggas in gap
H hchas in loch (aspirated)
I iias in fit
J jyas in yes
K kkas in kit
L llas in lip
Ł łwas in wet
M mmas in mat
N nnas in nut
Ń ńnyn' as in onion
O ooas in hot
Ó óuas in push
P ppas in pin
R rras in Roma (rolled)
S ssas in sun
Ś śshas in sheep
T ttas in top
U uuas in push
W wvas in vat
Y yyas in rhythm
Z zzas in zip
Ź źzhg' as in Niger (soft)
Ż żzhs' as in pleasure (hard)
Qq, Vv, Xxk, v, xonly in foreign words

Polish Dipthongs

Dipthong
Pronunciation
ch'ch' as in the Scottish loch
ci'ch' as in cheek
cz'ch' as in chalk
dz'ds' as in goods
dzi'du' as in duke
'du' as in duke
'j' as in job
ni'n' as in onion
rz's' as in treasure
si'sh' as in sheep
sz'sh' as in shark
szcz'shch' as in chair
zi'g' as in Niger

Polish Alphabet