Turkish Alphabet

The Turkish alphabet is used to write the Turkish language, the official language in Turkey, Cyprus, and Northern Cyprus, and the minority language in several countries such as Greece, Iraq, and Romania. There are about 88 million Turkish speakers globally.

The Turkish alphabet’s first writings were from the 7th century, known as the Orkhon script. Then, for over 1,000 years, from about 900 to 1928, Turkish was written using a Turkish form of the Arabic alphabet. This was a Perso-Arabic script known as the Ottoman Turkish script.

In 1928, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk issued a decree replacing the Arabic script with the Latin alphabet in an attempt to increase literacy in and modernize Turkey.

The modern Turkey alphabet is derived from the Latin alphabet. There are 29 letters in the Turkish alphabet, 21 consonants, and eight vowels. The alphabet does not include Q, W, and X but has seven additional letters, Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü. Q, W, and X are used in foreign names and loanwords, words borrowed from foreign languages without a translation.

Upper/Lower
English Sound
Pronunciation
A a/a/a' as in father
B b/b/b' as in book
C c/dʒ/j' as in Joke
Ç ç/tʃ/ch' as in chimpanzee
D d/d/d' as in day
E e/e/, /ɛ/e' as in red or 'a' as in cat
F f/f/f' as in far
G g/ɡ/, /ɟ/g' as in game
Ğ ğ/ɣ/1No equivalent, watch video below
H h/h/h' as in hot
I ı/ɯ/e' as in open
İ i/i/i' as in machine
J j/ʒ/s' as in pleasure
K k/k/, /c/k' as in kilo
L l/l/, /ɫ/l' as in life
M m/m/m' as in master
N n/n/n' as in nice
O o/o/o' as in more
Ö ö/ø/u' as in turn
P p/p/p' as in spin
R r/ɾ/the 'r' as in car
S s/s/s' as in smile
Ş ş/ʃ/sh' as in shine
T t/t/t' as in stop
U u/u/u' as in ultimate
Ü ü/y/u' as in cube
V v/v/v' as in victory
Y y/j/y' as in you
Z z/z/z' as in zigzag