Vietnamese Alphabet

The Vietnamese alphabet is the writing system for Vietnamese. It was developed by Portuguese missionary Francisco de Pina. Vietnamese is spoken primarily in Vietnam, as well as China’s Guangxi Province, Cambodia, and Laos.

The alphabet has 29 letters, 18 consonants, and 11 vowels. There are seven letters using four diacritics: ă, â/ê/ô, ơ/ư, đ.

The Vietnamese alphabet contains all letters of the Latin alphabet except for f, j, w, and z. These four letters are used for loanwords, which are words borrowed from other languages without translation.

Vietnamese is a tonal language. As seen with the Thai alphabet and Chinese alphabet, this alphabet has tone marks. This means that the meaning of a word depends on the pitch. There are five diacritics to designate tone: grave accent, hook above, tilde, acute accent, and dot below.

Vietnames Alphabet
English Sound
Pronunciation
aα:‘a’ as in father
âɜ‘u’ as in but
ăα‘a’ as in hat
bɓ‘b’ as in big
ck‘c’ as in cat
dz, j‘z’ as in zoo (north), ‘y’ as in yes (south)
đɗ‘d’ as in done
eε‘e’ as in get
êe‘a’ as in mate
gɣ‘g’ as in good
hh‘h’ as in house
ii‘i’ as in machine
kk‘c’ as in cat
ll‘l’ as in life
mm‘m’ as in man
nn‘n’ as in nice
oɔ‘o’ as in hot
ôo‘oa’ as in boat
ơɜ:‘u’ as in fur
pp‘p’ as in pet
qq‘q’ as in queue
rz, ɹ‘z’ as in zoo (north), ‘r’ as in ring (south)
ss, ∫‘s’ as in sore (north), ‘s’ as in sure (south)
tt‘t’ as in stop
uʊ‘oo’ as in boot
ưɨ‘oo’ as in boot
vv, j‘v’ as in van (north), ‘y’ as in yes (south)
xs‘s’ as in sore
yi‘I’ as in pin

Vietnamese Alphabet