How Old is Russia?

Russia has one of the most disputed ages on the planet and it is difficult to determine. The Kievan Rus states unified in 879 but originally dates as far back as 862. The Russia that we know today was created under a federation in 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. This makes Russia as old as 1160 years, and as young as 31 years. Below are key facts about Russia.

Basic Info

Capital and largest city: Moscow. Coordinates: 55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E.

Official language and national language: Russian

Recognized national languages: Russian

Ethnic groups (2010)

80.9% Russian

3.9% Tatar

1.4% Ukrainian

1.1% Bashkir

1.0% Chuvash

1.0% Chechen

10.7% Others

Demonym(s): Russian

Religion (2012)

47.4% Christianity

—41% of Russian Orthodoxy

—6.4% Other Christian

38.2% No religion

6.5% Islam

2.4% Others

5.5% Unanswered

Government Info

Government: Federal Semi-Presidential Republic (under a centralized authoritarian government)

• President: Vladimir Putin

• Prime Minister: Mikhail Mishustin

• Speaker of the Federation Council: Valentina Matviyenko

• Speaker of the State Duma: Vyacheslav Volodin

• Chief Justice: Vyacheslav Lebedev

• Legislature: Federal Assembly

• Upper house: Federation Council

Formation History

• Kievan Rus': 879

• Vladimir-Suzdal: 1157

• Grand Duchy of Moscow: 1263

• Tsardom of Russia: 16 January 1547

• Russian Empire: 2 November 1721

• Monarchy abolished: 15 March 1917

• the Soviet Union: 30 December 1922

• Declaration of State Sovereignty: 12 June 1990

• Russian Federation: 12 December 1991

• Current constitution: 12 December 1993

• Union State formed: 8 December 1999

• Crimea annexed: 18 March 2014

Geographical and Economic Info

• Total Area: 17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi) 17,125,191 km2 (including Crimea) (1st)

• Water (%): 13 (including swamps)

• Population (2022 Estimate): Neutral decrease 145,478,097 (including Crimea); Neutral decrease 143,054,637 (excluding Crimea)(9th)

• Density: 8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)

• GDP (PPP) 2022 Estimate Total: Increase $4.365 trillion (6th)

• Per capita Increase $30,013 (58th) GDP (nominal) 2022 estimate

• Total Increase $1.829 trillion (11th)

• Per capita Increase $12,575 (68th)

• Gini (2020) Positive decrease 36.0 (medium · 98th)

• HDI (2019) Increase 0.824 (very high · 52nd)

Additional Info

• Currency: Russian ruble (₽) (RUB)

• Time zone: UTC+2 to +12

• Driving side: right

• Calling code: +7

• ISO 3166 code: RU

• Internet TLD: .ru, .р

The Current State of Russia

Russia is the world's largest land mass, and as such, has experienced the most border changes throughout its time, as well as multiple regime changes. The initial origin of Russia started with Kievan Rus, which was a formation of Vikings that ventured north into the colder climate and established the city of Kiev (or Kyiv in Ukrainian). The Kievan Rus people were initially led by King Oleg, who ventured south to free the Rus people from the Khazars. It was the most prosperous state in Europe until the sacking of Kyiv between 1237 and 1240. This scattered the Rus people into various smaller Russian states.

The Tatars and Mongols would continue to harass the Rus people for well over 200 years, and each state had to either pay tribute or defend itself. The most prosperous of these states were the people who colonized the Musocovite river, called Moscow. Moscow had been pillaged but, through sheer determination and the construction of the Kremlin, established its defenses in the Grand Duchy of Moscow. It wasn't until 1547 that Moscow was named the official capital of the Rus people, and unified under the Tsardom of Russia.

Date of Initial Sovereignty
Years Since Initial Sovereignty

How Old is Russia?

How old is Russia?

The country of Russia is 543 years old, founded in the year 1480.

Frequently Asked Questions