Manila is the capital and second-largest city of the Philippines and one of 16 cities that comprise Metro Manila, which has an overall population of 12.8 million per the 2015 Census. The city of Manila has a population of 1.78 million in 2016, according to census data.
Manila is the world's most densely populated city with 42,857 people per square kilometer, or 111,002 people per square mile. This is all contained within an area of 42.88 square kilometers (16.56 square miles).
The Metro Manila population is estimated at 12 million but the larger urban area has a population estimated at 21.3 million. The Metro Manila population swells during the daytime, however, to about 15 million. This density is much higher than that of Mumbai (23,000 people/sq km), Paris (20,150 people/sq km), and Toyko (10,100 people/sq km).
The most recent census found that Tondo has become the most populous district, accounting for 38% of the total population, followed by Sampaloc (20.7%) and Santa Ana (10.7%).
The indigenous people of the Manila area were Tagalogs, with other native ethnic groups of the country later inhabiting the region due to migration. Other groups that have moved to Manila include the Bicolanos, Visayans, Ilocanos, Kapampangan, Pangasinan and Moro groups, as well as tribal groups like the Bajau and the Igorot.
Manila is home to the oldest Chinatown in the world, Binondo, which was established in 1594. This is historically where the Spanish allowed converted sangleys (indigenous Filipino wives and mixed-race descendants) to live. This small town was already a hub of Chinese commerce before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century.
Manila also has large populations of Americans, Spaniards and Koreans. Metro Manila is a social urban conglomerate and one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world.
Manila Population Growth
Manila has grown rapidly over the last century, except for a period between 1990 and 2000 when it had a negative growth rate of 0.13%. Between 2000 and 2010, the population had an average annual growth rate of 0.44%. By 2020, it is predicted that most of the world's megacities will be in Asia, and Metro Manila will have a population of 20 million.
Since its founding in 1571, Manila has become a very densely populated city that has struggled with crime, overpopulation and pollution. Despite being occupied and/or ruled by Americans, Spaniards, and the Japanese for hundreds of years, a real plan has never been made for the region's expansion. In fact, it was planned for a population of just 800,000 in 1905.