Canada Population 2016

Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area and the largest North American country. Canada extends from the Pacific to the Atlantic and north to the Arctic Ocean. The United States-Canadian border is the longest land border in the world. In 2015, Canada has an estimated population of 35.87 million, which ranks 37th in the world.

Canada Population 2015

A census was conducted in Canada on 10 May 2011. Preliminary figures released on 8 February 2012 showed that the officially recorded population of Canada was 33,476,688. Today, Canada has an estimated population of 35.87 million. Canada is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world, with much of its land inhospitable. The country's population density is just 3 people per square kilometer (8/square mile), which ranks 228th in the world.

Rapid Population Growth

As you can see from the chart, Canada's population has tripled since the 1940s, growing from 11 million at the time of the second world war to well over 35 million today.

Population growth has been fairly consistent over the past fifty years and shows no sign of slowing. Between the last census in 2006 and 2011, the number of people in Canada increased by an impressive 5.9%.

Canada's growth is fueled largely by immigration. In fact, relative to its size, Canada is the largest importer of human capital in the G8, attracting even more immigrants per capita than the USA. Natural population growth, by contrast, accounts for only around a tenth of Canada's overall population increase each year.

Given the large geographical area of Canada and its relative affluence, it is likely that its population will continue to grow rapidly for decades to come, leading some to speculate as to what a Canada of 100 million people might look like, and whether increased population combined with unrivaled access to natural resources would make Canada a global superpower.

Canada's Population by Province and Territory

The census results also show the population of each Canadian province and territory. More than half of Canadians live in just two provinces; Ontario, where one in three Canadians live, and Quebec where almost a quarter of Canadians live. The combined population of Canada's three territories (Northwest, Yukon and Nunavut) is less than the population of Canada's smallest province (Prince Edward Island).

Rank Province/Territory Abbreviation Population (2011) % of national population
Ontario ON 12,851,821 38.4%
Quebec QC 7,903,001 23.6%
British Columbia BC 4,400,057 13.1%
Alberta AB 3,645,257 10.9%
Manitoba MB 1,208,268 3.6%
Saskatchewan SK 1,033,381 3.1%
Nova Scotia NS 921,727 2.8%
New Brunswick NB 751,171 2.2%
Newfoundland and Labrador NL 514,536 1.5%
Prince Edward Island PE 140,204 0.4%
Northwest Territories NT 41,462 0.1%
Yukon YT 33,897 0.1%
Nunavut NU 31,906 0.1%

Largest Cities in Canada

The largest city in Canada by population is Toronto, home to 2,615,060 people at the time of the 2011 census. The wider Toronto metropolitan area is over twice as populous, containing 5,583,064 people in total.

Canada's second largest city is Montreal in Quebec, where 1,649,519 people live, followed in third place by Calgary in Alberta with 1,096,833. Calgary is growing at twice the Canadian average, however, so if current trends continue it will no doubt overhaul Montreal at some point. Ottawa is Canada's fourth largest city – 883,391 people live in the capital city.

Canada Population Density

As you can see from the map, the majority of Canadians live in a narrow Southern belt along the border with the United States.

There are two main reasons for this.

The first, and most important, is that the most hospitable part of Canadian territory is in the south. Summers are warm and winters are not too harsh, making the area suitable for agriculture. The second reason is the majority of Canada's trade (both import and export) is with its US neighbor, and it makes sense for the majority of Canadians to live as close to the US border as possible.

Canada as a whole has a population density of just 3.41 people per square kilometer (8.3/square mile), which makes it the 228th most densely populated country. Canada is also the second largest country after Russia in terms of size, and the 4th largest in terms of land area. The population density is among the lowest in the world, mostly because a great deal of the country to the north is virtually uninhabited or with very little settlements. Toronto, meanwhile, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world with a density of 945.4 people per square kilometer.

Canada Demographics

According to the 2011 census, the most common ethnic origins in Canada are: European (77%), Asian (14%), Aboriginal (4%), Black (3%), Latin American (1%), and Multi-racial (0.5%).

32% of Canadians considered their ethnic origin to be Canadian. Other major groups recorded were English (21%), French (15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%) and Italian (4.6%). The largest ethnicities of non-European origin (other than Canadian) were Chinese (4.3%) and First Nations (4.0%). When reading these figures, you should bear in mind that census respondents could select multiple ethnic groups.

Canada's aboriginal people are growing at twice the national rate. While 4% of the population claims an aboriginal identity, another 16% belongs to a non-aboriginal visible minority. More than 20% of the population is now foreign-born, and about 60% of new immigrants come from Asia, particularly China.

English and French are the official languages of Canada. In 2006, 59.7% of Canadians reported that English was their first language and 23.2% reported that French was their first language. The only other language in Canada that is the mother tongue of more than a million people in Chinese. Although there are 11 aboriginal languages, only a few are spoken by enough people to ensure that they are safe from extinction.

Data on religious belief is only collected in every other census. The last data, collected in 2001, indicated that 77% of Candians were Christian (43% Roman Catholic and 29% Protestant), 16.5% had no religion, 2% were Muslim. Other major religious groups were Jewish (1.1%), Buddhist and Hindu (1% each) and Sikh (0.9%).

Canadian Diaspora

An impressive 2.8 million Canadian citizens live outside of Canada itself; that's equivalent to 9% of the overall Canadian population. For comparison, only 1.7% of US citizens live abroad but more than 20% of New Zealanders live abroad.

Around 1 million Canadians live in the United States. The next most popular destination is Hong Kong, where approximately 300,000 Canadians are based. Around 4 in 10 Canadians living abroad were born in Canada, but a larger proportion (6 in 10) are naturalised Canadian citizens who have moved back abroad -- most, but not all, to their country of origin.

Canada Population Growth

Frank Trovato, a professor of population and demography studies at the University of Alberta, told CBS news that Canada's population is "showing that we are growing but not by too much or too little."

As Trovato put it, Canada still needs a robust increase to keep up with demands in the workforce and maintain a strong economy. It may be time for policymakers in the country to consider ways to boost Canada's fertility rates, such as with "family friendly" policies that allow women to combine a family with a career.

Canada Population Clock

What is the population of Canada (as of [[date]])? [[getCurrentPopulation()]]
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2016) [[getLastEstimate()]]
Births Per Day 5,313
Deaths Per Day 3,780
Net Migrations Per Day 3,014
Net Change Per Day 4,547
Population Change Since January 1st [[getPopChangeThisYear()]]
  • Net [[getIncreaseOrDecrease()]] of 1 person every [[getDurationPerPerson()]]

  • Population estimated based on interpolation of World Population Prospects data.

Canada Population Indicators

Indicator Value World Ranking
Crude Birth Rate 10.549 births/thousand 161st
Crude Death Rate 7.505 deaths/thousand 97th
Crude Net Migration Rate 5.983 people/thousand 7th
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 82.63 years 14th
Life Expectancy (Male) 80.75 years 9th
Life Expectancy (Female) 84.44 years 13th
Total Fertility Rate 1.563 children/woman 165th
Net Reproduction Rate 0.753 surviving daughters/woman 164th
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.056 males per female 60th
Infant Mortality Rate 4.038 deaths/1,000 live births 155th
Under Five Mortality 4.611 deaths/thousand 160th
Mean Age at Childbearing 31.073 years 27th

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision)

Canada Population Growth

Canada has one of the fastest growth rates of any G8 nation, growing faster than many other industrialized countries. Canada's population has surpassed 35 million, which represents a 1.2% increase over one year and a growth that's higher in the western provinces of the country.

Canada's growth rate has remained rather stable over the last 30 years, ranging anywhere from 0.8% to 1.2%. For the past twenty years, net international migration has been Canada's main source of growth, responsible for 2/3 of its growth between 2012 and 2013, and there is no indication this will change.

It's estimated that this predictable growth will continue, and Canada may have 42.5 million residents by 2056, although it is expected to fall off a bit due to declines in natural population increases. It's also predicted that deaths will outpace births by 2030, which means immigration will become the only growth factor for the country.

Canada Population History

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2016 36,286,378 18,000,365 18,286,013 3 0.9318%
2015 35,939,927 17,826,268 18,113,659 3 0.9594%
2010 34,126,172 16,926,547 17,199,626 3 1.0892%
2005 32,256,333 15,986,280 16,270,053 3 1.0949%
2000 30,701,903 15,204,350 15,497,553 3 0.9383%
1995 29,299,478 14,502,843 14,796,635 3 0.9899%
1990 27,662,440 13,715,671 13,946,769 3 1.2632%
1985 25,848,173 12,835,093 13,013,080 2 1.2807%
1980 24,515,787 12,210,032 12,305,756 2 1.0256%
1975 23,140,609 11,581,536 11,559,073 2 1.2852%
1970 21,439,200 10,750,891 10,688,309 2 1.6246%
1965 19,693,538 9,902,063 9,791,475 2 1.749%
1960 17,909,232 9,058,376 8,850,856 1 2.1362%
1955 15,733,858 7,974,851 7,759,007 1 2.7803%
1950 13,736,997 6,968,999 6,767,998 1 2.6082%

Canada Population Projections

Year Population Male Population Female Population Density (per sq km) Growth Rate
2020 37,599,568 18,667,523 18,932,046 4 0.8153%
2025 39,065,703 19,411,098 19,654,605 4 0.7066%
2030 40,390,430 20,078,178 20,312,252 4 0.5958%
2035 41,517,659 20,638,359 20,879,300 4 0.4894%
2040 42,478,668 21,114,503 21,364,165 4 0.4196%
2045 43,339,824 21,542,858 21,796,966 4 0.3786%
2050 44,135,600 21,943,847 22,191,753 4 0.3371%
2055 44,853,372 22,315,347 22,538,025 4 0.3075%
2060 45,534,227 22,677,501 22,856,726 5 0.294%
2065 46,198,977 23,033,040 23,165,938 5 0.283%
2070 46,840,859 23,371,553 23,469,306 5 0.2619%
2075 47,430,737 23,682,379 23,748,358 5 0.2315%
2080 47,954,653 23,958,901 23,995,752 5 0.2042%
2085 48,426,643 24,211,439 24,215,204 5 0.1854%
2090 48,864,539 24,448,151 24,416,388 5 0.1731%
2095 49,278,898 24,676,368 24,602,530 5 0.1624%
Data Sources
  1. World Population Prospects - Global demographic estimates and projections by the United Nations