Eea Countries 2019

The EEA, or the European Economic Area, refers to a region in Europe containing both the countries that are part of the European Free Trade Association and the European Union. The EFTA and the EU banded together to create a region that allows countries beyond the EU to engage in trade within the European Market.

The overall breakdown of the EEA countries is partially European Union states, and partially European Free Trade Association states, as well as one European Union state that is a member of the EEA but on a different level as the other thirty-two EFA states. There are twenty-seven EEA states that are also part of the European Union, and there are three EFTA states that are also EEA states. The one state that had a declared provisional membership with the European Economic Area was Switzerland, which is currently part of the European Union as well, but Switzerland no longer participates in the European Economic Area. Instead, Croatia has submitted an application, if you will, to be part of the EEA under a provisional membership like Switzerland had.

The EU is comprised of…

The EFTA is made up of...

  • Iceland
  • Liechtenstein
  • Norway

The one country that is part of the European Economic Area but neither in the European Union nor the European Free Trade Association is Switzerland.

Member countries of the European Union joined the European Economic Area at different periods of time. Here are a few of the countries that joined the EEA followed by the year during which they joined...

  • Austria in 1995
  • Bulgaria in 2007
  • Croatia in 2014
  • Finland in 1995
  • Iceland in 2013
  • Romania in 2007
  • Sweden in 1995

So, a consolidated list of countries that are part of the European Economic Area include…

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • The Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • The European Union
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • The Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • The United Kingdom

The very first signing of the EEA Agreement took place on May 2, 1992. At that point in time, a very high percentage of the current EEA countries signed the EEA Agreement. Of the thirty-three countries that are part of the European Economic Area, twenty countries signed the Agreement on May 2, 1992, including...

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • The European Union
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Liechtenstein
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • The United Kingdom

The thirty-three countries in the European Economic Area all joined the EEA between May 2, 1992, and April 11, 2014. Here is a list of the EEA countries with a date attached, and this date denotes the month, day, and year that each country signed the EEA Agreement...

  • Austria -- May 2, 1992
  • Belgium -- May 2, 1992
  • Bulgaria -- July 25, 2007
  • Croatia -- April 11, 2014
  • Cyprus -- October 14, 2003
  • The Czech Republic -- October 14, 2003
  • Denmark -- May 2, 1992
  • The European Union -- May 2, 1992
  • Estonia -- October 14, 2003
  • Finland -- May 2, 1992
  • France -- May 2, 1992
  • Germany -- May 2, 1992
  • Greece -- May 2, 1992
  • Hungary -- October 14, 2003
  • Iceland -- May 2, 1992
  • Ireland -- May 2, 1992
  • Italy -- May 2, 1992
  • Latvia -- October 14, 2003
  • Liechtenstein -- May 2, 1992
  • Lithuania -- October 14, 2003
  • Luxembourg -- May 2, 1992
  • Malta -- October 14, 2003
  • The Netherlands -- May 2, 1992
  • Norway -- May 2, 1992
  • Poland -- October 14, 2003
  • Portugal -- May 2, 1992
  • Romania -- July 25, 2007
  • Slovakia -- October 14, 2003
  • Slovenia -- October 14, 2003
  • Spain -- May 2, 1992
  • Sweden -- May 2, 1992
  • Switzerland -- May 2, 1992
  • The United Kingdom -- May 2, 1992

Even though these countries signed the document that made them part of the European Economic Area during that time period, the date that each country signed the EEA Agreement was not the date that they were ratified and officially declared a member country of the European Economic Area. They joined the EEA at a later date after their signature was approved. The dates that every EEA country was ratified are listed below…

  • Austria -- October 15, 1992
  • Belgium -- November 9, 1993
  • Bulgaria -- February 29, 2008
  • Croatia -- March 24, 2015
  • Cyprus -- April 30, 2004
  • The Czech Republic -- June 10, 2004
  • Denmark -- December 30, 1992
  • The European Union -- December 13, 1993
  • Estonia -- May 13, 2004
  • Finland -- December 17, 1992
  • France -- December 10, 1993
  • Germany -- June 23, 1993
  • Greece -- September 10, 1993
  • Hungary -- April 26, 2004
  • Iceland -- February 4, 1993
  • Ireland -- July 29, 1993
  • Italy -- November 15, 1993
  • Latvia -- May 4, 2004
  • Liechtenstein -- April 25, 1995
  • Lithuania -- April 27, 2004
  • Luxembourg -- October 21, 1993
  • Malta -- March 5, 2004
  • The Netherlands -- December 31, 1992
  • Norway -- November 19, 1992
  • Poland -- October 8, 2004
  • Portugal -- March 9, 1993
  • Romania -- May 23, 2008
  • Slovakia -- March 19, 2004
  • Slovenia -- June 30, 2005
  • Spain -- December 3, 1993
  • Sweden -- December 18, 1992
  • Switzerland -- special case
  • The United Kingdom -- November 15, 1993

The European Economic Area is governed by two governing bodies. The EEA Joint Committee and the EEA Council work in tandem to keep everything running smoothly, efficiently, and economically sound in the EEA. There are two different regulators as well as two separate courts in the European Economic Area.

The regulators are...

  • EC, or the European Commission
  • EFTA SA, or the European Free Trade Association Surveillance Authority

The two courts are...

  • ECJ, or the Court of Justice of the European Union
  • EFTA Court, or the Court of Justice of the European Free Trade Association States

The European Economic Area, or the EEA, is an area where there is free movement of people, capital, goods and services in the European Single Market. This was established through the EEA Agreement that went into effect in 1994. Residents in the area are free to live within any country in the area.

According to the EEA Agreement, any state that is part of the European Union or the European Free Trade Association can be a member. When the agreement first went into effect, the EEA had 17 states as members, as well as the now-defunct European Coal and Steel Community and the European Community. Today, there are 31 states that are part of the EEA.

There were many nations that signed the agreement in 1992 and entered when the Agreement was officially enforced on January 1, 1994. In alphabetical order, those nations are…

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • The European Union
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom

The year after the agreement was adopted, Liechtenstein joined the EEA. In 2005, ten more member states entered the agreement. These countries include...

  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Estonia
  • Hungary
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
Flag Name Population 2019 Area Growth Rate
Germany83,517,045357,114 km²0.47%
United Kingdom67,530,172242,900 km²0.58%
France65,129,728551,695 km²0.21%
Italy60,550,075301,336 km²-0.13%
Spain46,736,776505,992 km²0.09%
Poland37,887,768312,679 km²-0.09%
Romania19,364,557238,391 km²-0.73%
Netherlands17,097,13041,850 km²0.22%
Belgium11,539,32830,528 km²0.50%
Czech Republic10,689,20978,865 km²0.22%
Greece10,473,455131,990 km²-0.46%
Portugal10,226,18792,090 km²-0.29%
Sweden10,036,379450,295 km²0.65%
Hungary9,684,67993,028 km²-0.24%
Austria8,955,10283,871 km²0.72%
Bulgaria7,000,119110,879 km²-0.73%
Denmark5,771,87643,094 km²0.34%
Finland5,532,156338,424 km²0.17%
Slovakia5,457,01349,037 km²0.07%
Norway5,378,857323,802 km²0.77%
Ireland4,882,49570,273 km²1.32%
Lithuania2,759,62765,300 km²-1.49%
Slovenia2,078,65420,273 km²0.04%
Latvia1,906,74364,559 km²-1.13%
Estonia1,325,64845,227 km²0.21%
Cyprus1,198,5759,251 km²0.78%
Luxembourg615,7292,586 km²1.90%
Malta440,372316 km²0.26%
Iceland339,031103,000 km²0.69%
Liechtenstein38,019160 km²0.29%