Japan Population 2018


Japan, the island nation in East Asia, is a fairly sizable archipelago of 6,852 islands, although the four largest islands (Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shitoku) account for 97% of its population. The last set of official figures pertaining to Japan’s population were released at the time of the 2015 census and the final statistics showed there were 127,094,745 people there, which would make Japan the tenth largest country in the world. The most recent estimate places the number lower at 126.71 million, still the world's 10th most populous country. Though in decline, it still holds that position in 2018 with an estimated 127.19 million people.

The commonly held view that the population of Japan is in line for a sharp decline is backed up by the numbers. Based on the projections by the United Nations (visible in the graph below), the downturn will continue, and possibly accelerate.

Japan is comprised of more than 6,800 islands, although its largest four claim 97% of its population. During the 2010-2015 period, the population of Japan declined by 947 thousand (0.7%), or by 189 thousand (0.15%) per year. It declined for the first time since the Population Census was begun in 1920.

As we’ve seen, the [final census figures] (http://www.stat.go.jp/english/info/news/20160420.html) for 2015 showed a final count of 127,094,745 people with a population density of 340.8 people per square kilometers, thereby making Japan the 40th most densely populated country on the planet.

Japan Demographics

Unlike many other countries around the world today, the population of Japan appears largely homogenous with the final population statistics comprised of a 98.5% contribution from ethnic Japanese people. In addition, there is a very small proportion of foreign workers living here, largely made up of Koreans, Chinese, Peruvians and Brazilians.

The largest native ethnic group in Japan is the Yamato people, although large minority groups include the indigenous Ryukyuan and Ainu peoples. While Japan may seem homogenous in terms of ethnicity and culture, this may be due to Japan's absence of racial and ethnic statistics for Japanese nationals. The country has traditionally rejected the need to recognize ethnic differences in Japan, and former Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso once described the country as one of "one nation, one civilization, one language, one culture and one race."

Japan is currently the world's oldest country, and it's set to get even older. The number of elderly people aged 65 or older accounts for 26.7 percent of the 127.11 million total population, up 3.7 percentage points from five years ago, a summary report of the 2015 national census shows. In 2050, it's estimated by the government that 40% of Japan's population will be over 65. In the last few decades, the country's social security budget has increased 15%. While 5 decades ago there were 12 workers for every retiree, there will be an equal 1:1 ratio in 50 years. This is one of any demographics problems Japan must address.

Reasons for Falling Numbers

Some reports claim that Japan’s total population could fall by as much as 30% to around 87 million by 2050 and the reasons, quite simply, point to a disparity in the birth and death rates. In addition, it’s impossible to rule out the part that the March 2011 tsunami and earthquake played. 19,000 people lost their lives at the time, and it’s widely accepted that the incidents will have a ‘knock-on’ effect of reducing overall life expectancy.

The difference between rising death rates and lower birth rates is also clearly a factor with low fertility rates among women shouldering part of the blame. Experts attribute Japan's low growth to the high cost of raising children in the country, the growing number of women who choose to work longer and have a career rather than have children, and Japan's reluctance to accept immigrants.

Another statistic that doesn’t help the population decline is the alarming number of suicides in young people.

Unfortunately, Japan has one of the world's highest suicide rates, and suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30. Factors in suicides in the country include social pressure, depression and unemployment, and the National Police Agency found that suicides linked to job loss increased 65.4%. There was a suicide in Japan every 15 minutes, with close to 33,000 reported in 2009. Luckily, suicide rates have been on the decline for three consecutive years. This is just one of the many problems Japan will need to control to see its population and economy grow into the future.

The Future of Japan

Overall, Japan has the highest life expectancy in the world even though it is expected to fall slightly in the near future. However, with low birth rates, the population is rapidly aging but in 2007, the country announced its first significant birth rate increase in many years, so could the predictions be false?

Incentives to have more children are also being announced, but as a whole, the country is just starting to feel the effects of a post-war baby boom, many of whom are now nearing the end of their years.

Slowing population growth and an aging population are creating more than a headache for the island nation, as this problem is shrinking its pool of taxable citizens, causing the social welfare costs to skyrocket, and has led to Japan becoming the most indebted industrial nation with public debt that is double its economy.

It's possible that Japan's population will drop to just 96 million (from 2015's 127 million) by 2050, and the country as a whole is involved in serious debate about how to fix this problem. While birth incentives and immigration incentives are often suggested as the solution to bring the young workers necessary to support the country's aging population, time will tell if this is enough.

Japan's population growth rate declined in 2015 to -0.07%.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 31 seconds
One death every 23 seconds
One net migrant every 11 minutes
Net loss of one person every 2 minutes

Japan Population in 2018Source: By https://www.flickr.com/photos/reggiepen/ [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Japan Population Pyramid 2018

0k200k400k600k800k1MJapan Male Population0k200k400k600k800k1MJapan Female Population10095908580757065605550454035302520151050

Japan Median Age







Japan Population by Age

Japan's population is one of the oldest in the world, with a median age of nearly 47 years.

There are 107,576,063 adults in Japan.

Census Years

Year Date
20201 October 2020
20151 October 2015
201024 October 2010
20081 October 2008
20051 October 2005
20001 October 2000
19981 October 1998
19951 October 1995
19881 October 1988
19851 October 1985

Population Data via United Nations WPP (2015 Revision, Medium Variant)

Japan Population Growth

Japan's efforts to increase its birth rate have been unsuccessful and the country's population is slowly declining. The population may fall to just 107 million from the current 126.6 million by 2050.

About Japan

Official NameJapan
Languages SpokenJapanese
Is LandlockedNo
Currencies UsedJapan Yen

Countries Bordering Japan


Japan Population Density

Japan Top 20 Cities by Population

Name Population

Japan Population Clock

The population of Japan (as of 6/15/2018)?127,197,482
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2018)127,185,332
Births Per Day2,815
Deaths Per Day3,762
Net Migrations Per Day 137
Net Change Per Day -810
Population Change Since January 1st-134,460

Japan Population Indicators

Crude Birth Rate 8.079 births/thousand
Crude Death Rate 10.797 deaths/thousand
Crude Net Migration Rate 0.393 people/thousand
Life Expectancy (Both Sexes) 83.98 years
Male Life Expectancy 80.73 years
Female Life Expectancy 87.18 years
Total Fertility Rate 1.478 children/woman
Net Reproduction Rate 0.714 surviving daughters/woman
Sex Ratio At Birth 1.056 males per female
Infant Mortality Rate 1.903 deaths/1,000 live births
Under Five Mortality 2.653 deaths/thousand
Mean Age at Childbearing 31.336 years
Rate of Natural Increase -2.718

Japan Population by Year (Historical)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate

Japan Population by Year (Projections)

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
Data Sources
  1. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  2. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
  3. World Population Prospects (2017 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with the censuses from 1950 through 2015, and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration.

  4. GeoNames Gazetteer