Sudan Population 2020

43,597,301

Sudan, officially the Republic of Sudan but sometimes referred to as North Sudan, sits along the Red Sea south of Egypt and has a population consisting mostly of descendants of migrants from the nearby Arabian Peninsula. Sudan has a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometers (728,215 square miles) and has an estimated 2020 population of 43.85 million, a significant increase from the 34,847,910 estimated in 2013. This makes Sudan the 34th biggest country in the world.

Conducting an accurate census has been a challenge in Sudan for several decades due to conflicts in the area, while the South Sudan government has accused Sudan of deliberately manipulating census data in oil-rich regions. Sudan is often referred to as North Sudan as South Sudan seceded in 2011 with the consent of Sudan. The last official census recording the population of Sudan included the populations of Eastern, Western and Northern Sudan in 2008 and recorded over 30 million citizens, which puts present estimates of the population of Sudan post-secession at 43.85 million.

The majority of Sudan's population is rural, with an urban population of just 33.2%. The largest metropolitan area, Khartoum (which includes Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman) is quickly growing and ranges between 6 and 7 million, which includes approximately 2 million displaced people from the southern war zone and the drought-affected areas in the west and east.

Sudan Area and Population Density

Sudan is a large, but sparsely populated country compared to the rest of Africa. It is the largest nation in Africa and covers 967,495 square miles (2,505,813 square kilometers), and is landlocked except its northeast border that touches the Red Sea. The countries touching the rest of Sudan's border are Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Chad, Libya, and Egypt.

The current population density of the nation is 64.0 people per square mile (24.7 people per square kilometer). Although these numbers are small, they have more than quadrupled in the past 50 years. These numbers are also skewed by a large amount of desert that is uninhabitable. The majority of Sudan's population live on or near the Nile river.

Largest Cities in Sudan

The majority of Sudan's major cities either lie along the Nile River or the Red Sea, which makes sense since so much of the rest of the country is desert. The largest city of Omdurman has a population of 2,395,013. Omdurman is in very close proximity to the nation's capital of Khartoum, which has a population of 1,974,647. Because these cities are so close, their populations are often lumped together into a cumulative greater metropolitan population of 7,380,479.

Some other notable cities are Nyala, Port Sudan, El-Obeid and Kassala- none of which have populations over 500,000.

Sudan Demographics

Sudanese Arabs account for 70% of the population of Sudan, with the rest of the population being Arabized ethnic groups of Beja, Copts, Nubians and other peoples. There are more than 597 tribes in Sudan speaking more than 400 dialects and languages. Sudan is almost entirely Muslim with most citizens speaking Sudanese Arabic.

Most Arabized and indigenous tribes, such as the Masalit and Zaghawa, who speak Chadian Arabic show very little cultural integration with the rest of the population due to linguistic and cultural differences. The vast majority of the Arab tribes in the country originally migrated to Sudan in the 12th century and then intermarried with indigenous populations and introduced Islam.

The Sudanese Arabs of the Eastern and Northern parts of Sudan are descended mostly from migrants from the Arabian peninsula and some already existing indigenous populations, such as the Nubian people, who share a common history with Egypt. While some pre-Islamic Arabian tribes lived in Sudan from earlier migrations from Western Arabia, most arrived in Sudan after the 12th century.

Sudan also has a young population with 41% of its total population under the age of 15. 20% of Sudanese people are 15 to 24 years old, 31% are between 25 and 54 and just under 4% are 55 to 64 years old. The population over 65 years of age is only 3.3%. Sudan has a very low median age of 18.9 years.

Sudan Religion, Economy and Politics

97% of the Sudanese population practice Islam, specifically the Sunni Sufi branch and the Maliki school Islamic jurisprudence. The remaining people largely follow indigenous beliefs or Christianity. Most Christians are refugees or immigrants.

Sharia Law is the basis of the legal system in Sudan, which means something different in different parts of the country, but in most areas stoning, flogging, and crucifixion are legal forms of punishment even though the 2005 Naivasha Agreement, which allowed the secession of South Sudan, established some protection for non-Muslims.

The secession of South Sudan significantly affected the country's economy because the south contained over 80% of the nation's oilfields. Because of this, the GDP has been decreasing and inflation has been increasing since 2010. Most of the population, however, work in agriculture.

Sudan Population History

The population of Sudan has grown consistently and quickly over the past century. Just 30 years ago, the population was just breaking 10 million. From the 1960s-2000, the growth rate was well over 3% annually, but the dropped by almost over a full percentage point during the period of civil war and the cessation of the south.

Sudan Population Growth

The population of Sudan has historically expanded significantly and continues to today. The addition to the country's natural population growth, the country's numbers increase faster than many nations because it is the home to huge numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons, almost a million of which have come over from South Sudan in recent years.

Sudan Population Projections

The substantial population growth of the past is expected to continue into the foreseeable future, although the rate of growth is likely to decrease somewhat. What current growth rate is 2.42% annually, which is forecasted to drop to 2% by 2030. The population is predicted to be 43,541,203 in 2020 and 54,842,478 by 2030.

Components of Population Change

One birth every 23 seconds
One death every 2 minutes
One net migrant every 15 minutes
Net gain of one person every 31 seconds

Sudan Population in 2018Source: By Bertramz [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons

Sudan Population Pyramid 2020

Sudan Population by Age

There are 22,731,921 adults in Sudan.

Census Years

Year Date
2018April 2018
20086 May 2008
199315 April 1993

The 1983 census put the total population of Sudan (including present-day South Sudan) at 21.6 million, which has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. While Sudan creates many refugees, it also hosts a sizable refugee population with over 310,000 people seeking asylum or refuge in Sudan in 2007.

Sudan's population growth rate has declined steadily for the past ten years with a current growth rate of 1.83%. Still, the country has a young population and a high total fertility rate of 4.05 children born per woman, as well as a very low contraceptive prevalence rate of just 9%. Despite a high infant mortality rate and one of the world's highest maternal mortality rates, Sudan is still above replacement level fertility and the population is expected to continue rising.

If trends continue, Sudan is expected to have a population of 42.7 million by 2025 that grows rapidly to 59 million by 2050.

Official NameRepublic of the Sudan
Languages SpokenArabic, English
Is LandlockedNo
Latitude/Longitude15.00, 30.00
Currencies UsedSudan Pound
DemonymSudanese
BordersCentral African Republic
Chad
Egypt
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Libya
South Sudan
Name Population Location
Khartoum1,974,647Map
Omdurman1,200,000Map
Nyala565,734Map
Port Sudan489,725Map
Kassala401,477Map
El Obeid393,311Map
Al Qadarif363,945Map
Kosti345,068Map
Wad Medani332,714Map
El Daein264,734Map
El Fasher252,609Map
Singa250,000Map
Ad-Damazin186,051Map
Geneina162,981Map
Rabak135,281Map
Sinnar130,122Map
Al Manaqil128,297Map
Gereida120,000Map
An Nuhud108,008Map
Atbara107,930Map

Sudan Population Clock

The population of Sudan (as of 4/2/2020)?43,597,301
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2020)43,849,260
Births Per Day3,768
Deaths Per Day844
Net Migrations Per Day-93
Net Change Per Day2,831
Population Change Since January 1st263,283

Sudan Population Estimator

SuMoTuWeThFrSa
29
30
31
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Estimate as of April 2nd 2020 is: 43,596,641

Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
202043,849,26049.96%50.04%23.25342.42%
201942,813,23849.96%50.04%22.70352.42%
201841,801,53349.95%50.05%22.16352.42%
201740,813,39749.95%50.05%21.64352.42%
201639,847,43949.94%50.06%21.13342.43%
201538,902,95049.93%50.07%20.63342.40%
201034,545,01349.88%50.12%18.32352.22%
200530,949,51650.13%49.87%16.41362.56%
200027,275,01550.15%49.85%14.46372.51%
199524,094,74750.15%49.85%12.78383.64%
199020,147,59050.15%49.85%10.68423.20%
198517,210,18750.12%49.88%9.12433.48%
198014,507,46850.09%49.91%7.69473.62%
197512,144,13550.06%49.94%6.44503.39%
197010,281,70050.01%49.99%5.45513.23%
19658,770,09749.97%50.03%4.65553.06%
19607,544,49149.95%50.05%4.00592.87%
19556,549,29849.94%50.06%3.47612.70%
19505,733,78949.96%50.04%3.04620.00%
Year Population % Male % Female Density (km²) Population Rank Growth Rate
202043,849,26049.96%50.04%23.25340.00%
202549,353,47949.98%50.02%26.17312.39%
203055,253,52949.98%50.02%29.30292.28%
203561,473,01149.97%50.03%32.59272.16%
204067,919,27349.96%50.04%36.01262.01%
204574,508,99149.94%50.06%39.50231.87%
205081,192,82349.91%50.09%43.05221.73%
205587,939,76649.88%50.12%46.63221.61%
206094,749,11749.84%50.16%50.24231.50%
2065101,536,62249.79%50.21%53.84211.39%
2070108,221,90649.74%50.26%57.38191.28%
2075114,707,59349.68%50.32%60.82201.17%
2080120,912,12449.63%50.37%64.11191.06%
2085126,787,51149.58%50.42%67.22190.95%
2090132,318,23549.54%50.46%70.16180.86%
2095137,503,97149.52%50.48%72.91170.77%
  1. Sudan Data Portal
  2. World Population Prospects (2019 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.

    Total population: Estimated to be consistent with the 1973, 1983, 1993 and the 2008 censuses, and with estimates of the subsequent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration.

  3. GeoNames Gazetteer