Bhutan is a landlocked country in South Asia at the end of the Himalayas. Bhutan is bordered by India to the west, south and east and China to the north. The last census in the country was carried out in 2005 showing a population of 634,900, which is about half the population of 1.37 million in 1991. Bhutan's population density is 18 people per square kilometer, which is one of the lowest population densities in the world.
The capital and largest city is Thimphu, with a population of 80,000 and a metro population of 115,000.
Most Bhutanese people belong to the Ngalops and Sharchops, or Western Bhutanese and Eastern Bhutanese. The Lhotshampa, or southerners, are a group primarily of Nepali descent. In 1988, this group accounted for 45% of the population and it included migrants who fought a war with Bhutan over rights to language and dress. Since then, there has been mass emigration, some of which was forced, that caused hundreds of thousands to leave Bhutan as stateless people in refugee camps. An additional 15% of the population is indigenous or from migrant tribes.
In 2006, Business Week ranked Bhutan as the happiest country in Asia and the 8th happiest in the world. Bhutan has a literacy rate of 60% with a median age of 25 years old.
75% of the population is Buddhist, most of which follow Vajrayana Buddhism, the state religion. 22% are Hindu, followed by 2% folk religion and 1% other religions.