Famous for being the birthplace of Genghis Khan, Mongolia is a vast and rugged country that still has a significant nomadic culture. It has a total population of just three million, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. The capital city of Ulaanbaatar is home to 1.3 million residents, close to half the country's total population. The city is Mongolia's economic, political and cultural center, and also links the country to its neighbors Russia and China via the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Chinese railway system.
Erdenet is the second-largest city in Mongolia, with a population of 86,866. It is a relatively new city, founded in 1974, and is home to one of the largest copper mines in the world. Throughout the 1980s, the majority of Erdenet's residents were Russians working in the mining industry, and today Russians still make up around 10% of the population. Similarly, Mongolia's third-largest city, Darkhan, is also quite new – it was founded in 1961 and also received economic support from the Soviet Union. Today it remains a mainly industrial region with a population of 74,300 residents.
Mongolia has 0 cities with more than a million people, 1 cities with between 100,000 and 1 million people, and 22 cities with between 10,000 and 100,000 people. The largest city in Mongolia is Ulan Bator, with a population of 844,818 people.