Monaco is technically a sovereign city-state that is considered a microstate. It is the second-smallest independent city-state behind only Vatican City. Monaco is on the French Riviera and is bordered by France on all sides. This country is home to 38,682 people, making it the most densely populated city-state globally. Monaco is recognized for being one of the most expensive places in the world.
Monaco was initially founded in 1191 but was acquired as a colony of Genoa in 1215. Continual changes in allegiance persisted for the next 500 years, passing through different families. Eventually, Revolutionary forces from France captured Monaco in 1793 and held the territory until 1814. The Monégasque Revolution in 1910 brought political transformation, which remained until the World Wars. Eventually, France became the protectorate and ruler of Monaco. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco declared that the country would remain an independent nation if there were no heirs to the Grimaldi name. However, Monaco's military is still the responsibility of France.
Monaco is a densely populated area. The majority of the population is made of French nationals, followed by native Monégasque, Italians, British, and Belgian. The official language in Monaco is French, although a large portion of the population also speaks Italian. Monaco is a cultural hub known for its cuisine, sports attractions, entertainment, and tourism.