Vatican City is officially an independent city-state. The indecent city-state is located within Rome, Italy. Often, Vatican City is simply referred to as the Vatican. The territory is run under the authority of the Holy See, and it is a sovereign nation. The Vatican City participates in international law and has diplomatic and spiritual independence. The city-state contains only 121 acres in total.
While Italy has always been a center for Catholicism, many popes did not live in Vatican City. Popes resided in the Lateran palace and Avignon before moving to Rome. In 1870, the popes returned to the Vatican to find the King of Italy took the former residence. Without an official home, the situation was referred to as the "Roman Question" between 1861 and 1929. The Holy See took up residence behind the Vatican Walls, and eventually, a treaty was signed to designate Vatican City an independent state. The Lateran Treaty was signed on June 7, 1929, to create the Vatican City officially.
As the smallest independent state in the world, it follows that the population is also sparse. In total, 825 people live in Vatican City. Four hundred fifty-three people are full-time residents, and 372 people are citizens of Vatican City but live elsewhere. There is no official language in the independent state, but Latin is usually the preferred language for correspondences related to the Holy See. Italian is used as the everyday language and is used in official communication. The Swiss Guard, who protect and manage Vatican City, will use Swiss German to command.