Officially the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany is a country located in Central Europe. It is located between the North and Baltic seas to the north, the Alps to the south. Germany has 16 constituent states and covers an area of 357,022 km2, which is equivalent to 137,847 square miles. It borders Denmark to the north, Austria, and Switzerland to the south, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, and Luxembourg, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The country’s capital is its largest city, Berlin. Germany is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia and the most populous member state of the European Union, and the nineteenth- most populous country in the world with a population of 83,783,942. The birth rate in Germany is 9.389 births per 1,000 people, and the death rate is 11.510 per 1,000 people. As of 2020, Germany’s life expectancy was 81 years. Germany has the third-oldest population in the world, with an average age of 47.4 years. As a developed country, Germany ranks high in the Human Development Index with an index of 0.939.
Officially the Republic of Austria, Austria, is a landlocked country located in the Southern part of Central Europe. Austria borders the Czech Republic to the north, Italy to the south, Slovakia to the northeast, Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the west, and Hungary to the east. It comprises nine federal states and has an area of 83,879 km2, equivalent to 32,386 square miles. The country’s capital city, which is also the largest city, is Vienna. Austria has an estimated population of about 9,006,398 and while Germany is the country’s official language, many Austrians also speak a variety of Bavarian dialects. The current birth rate for Austria is 9.940 per 1,000 people and a death rate of 9.941 deaths per 1,000 people. The life expectancy of Austria is estimated at 81.9 years. As a developed country, Austria ranks high in the Human Development Index with an index of 0.914.
Switzerland (Confœderatio Helvetica)
Officially the Swiss Confederation, Switzerland is a landlocked country located at the confluence of Central, Western, and Southern Europe. Switzerland borders Germany to the north, Italy to the west, Liechtenstein and Austria to the east, and France to the west. It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons with authorities based in Bern. Switzerland is geographically divided among the Alps, the Swiss Plateau, and the Jura and covers 41,285 km2, equivalent to 15,940 square miles. The capital of Switzerland is Bern. Switzerland has an estimated population of about 8,722,198 people. The current birth rate for Switzerland is 10.177 per 1,000 people and a death rate of 8.1 per 1,000 people. The life expectancy of Switzerland is estimated at 83.97 years. Switzerland has one of the oldest world populations with an average age of 42.5 years. As a developed country, Switzerland ranks second after Norway in the Human Development Index with an index of 0.946.