Jeju island is considered the most populous island in South Korea. The last official census was conducted in September 2020, and the total registration of the resident population was 672,948. Jeju is a self-governing province and holds some degree of autonomy over a few of its legislature enactments. 4000 of the residents live in outlying islands, mainly the islands of Udo and Ahuja. The jurisdiction of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province is 1849 kilometers.
The island is located in the Korean Strait, which is found south of the Korean Peninsula, especially south of the Jeolla province. Jeju is the most inhabited island in South Korea and the only self-governing province. This means that the autonomous nature of the island is left up to the inhabitants that reside there, rather than receiving all orders from the politicians of the mainland. This was done to govern themselves as they see fit for everyday life, as the inhabitants on the island have a different approach to their culture and values compared to most of the mainland residents.
Jeju island was formed about 2 million years ago as a result of an eruption from an underwater volcano. It has an oval shape and runs 73km from east to west. The land is relatively flat but has a slope in the center around Mount Halla. The longest road on the island is 181km long and is also considered the principal road for automobile transportation. The northern end of the island is named Kimyeong Beach and a mountain on the southern end of Jeju island is called Songak Mountain. Jeju island contains a natural World Heritage Site which is named the Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes. The climate of the island is extremely temperate, meaning that winters are not as cold, and summers are not as hot. This is extremely common in areas that are surrounded by large bodies of water.
The temperature of the island rarely, if ever, falls below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, making it an extremely popular tourist destination. As such, the economy of the island has been transformed from its agrarian past to accommodate the influx of visitors. Currently, tourism is a sizable portion of its economic activity.
Jeju Island may have been inhabited many years ago, but the earliest known official inhabitants were the kingdom of Tamna. The people of the island were invaded during the historic Mongol invasions of Korea, where the Mongol Empire had established an important military and civilian base on the island. The ally to the Mongols, the Goryeo army, converted a large portion of the island into pastures for both the Mongol and Korean cavalry.
Commencing with the isolation of the island in the 15th century, Jeju island was ruled by the Joseon dynasty. For more than 200 years, there was a travel ban in and out of the islands, which helped quell the many uprisings by the residents of Jeju island.