Maharashtra is a state in western India. Maharashtra is the second-most populous sub-national entity on earth and India's second-most populous state. The state is bordered by the states Karnataka, Goa, Gujarat, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh, the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and the Arabian Sea.
Maharashtra has an estimated population of 116,000,000, which is the second most populous sub-national entity. The state has an overall population density of 950 people per square mile or 370 per square kilometer. This density varies, of course, and the capital is one of the most densely populated cities on earth.
Maharashtra is the most developed state in India and the wealthiest, contributing 13.3% of the country's GDP. If it were its own country, Maharashtra would be the world's 10th most populous, ahead of Mexico.
The capital of Maharashtra is Mumbai, which is India's financial capital. Also known as Bombay, Mumbai is India's most populous city and the second-most populous metropolitan area in the country. It's also the 5th most populous city in the world with an estimated population of 19 million or 22 million in the metro area. Mumbai is also one of the world's most populous urban regions, and it has a large population density of 59,410 people per square mile or 22,937 per square kilometer.
The second largest city in Maharashtra is Pune, which is also the 7th largest metropolitan in India with a metro population of 8.2 million in 2014.
Nagpur is the second capital of Maharashtra and the largest city in central India, as well as a future global city. Nagpur is a rapidly growing region and the third most populous city in Maharashtra behind Mumbai and Pune with a population estimated at 2.9 million. Nagpur is the 13th most populous city in India and one of the most industrialized cities in the country.
Thane, known as the "city of lakes," has a population of more than 1.8 million and it is part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.
Marathis account for the majority of people in Maharashtra. The Marathi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group with a history going back more than 2,000 years. Minority groups include the Gujarati, Bihari, Punjabis, Paris, Tamil, and Kanarese. Maharashtra is also home to the Adivasis, an indigenous tribal people that consists of the Halba, Konkana, Warli, and Thakar.
Hinduism is the main religion of the state, accounting for 82.5% of the population, followed by Muslims at 13.4%. Jainism, Christianity, Sikhism, and other religions account for just over 4% of the population. Christianity first arrived in Maharashtra in the 13th century through Portuguese Jesuit missionaries, and most Maharashtrian Christians are Catholic.
The gender ratio in Maharashtra is 925 females for every 1,000 males, which is below the national average of 940, but certainly not the lowest in the country. The population density of the state is also lower than average.
Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India, and its residents account for nearly 9.3% of India's total population. In 2011, the state grew 15.99% over the last decade, while the decade before it rose more than 22.5%. Maharashtra is the second-most populous state in India, and its residents account for nearly 9.3% of India's total population. Since independence, the state has had a decadal growth rate exceeding the national average, except in 1971 and 2011.
In 2013, it was found that Maharashtra's urban population growth had slowed by more than 10% between 2001 and 2011, rising 23.67% compared to an increase of more than 34.5% between 1991 and 2001. This decline in growth is due to lower fertility and reduced internal migration numbers.