Birmingham, Alabama Population 2021

207,235
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Birmingham is a city located in Jefferson County and Shelby County Alabama. It is also the county seat of Jefferson County. With a 2020 population of 207,235, it is the largest city in Alabama and the 113th largest city in the United States . Birmingham is currently declining at a rate of -0.52% annually and its population has decreased by -2.36% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 212,237 in 2010. Birmingham reached it's highest population of 340,887 in 1960. Spanning over 149 miles, Birmingham has a population density of 1,419 people per square mile.

The average household income in Birmingham is $54,559 with a poverty rate of 25.90%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to $837 per month, and the median house value is $91,100. The median age in Birmingham is 35.9 years, 33.6 years for males, and 38.4 years for females.

The city was founded in 1871 and was once one of the primary industrial centers of the United States’ southern region. Today, while its industries have changed, it remains one of the country’s most important business and banking centers in the US.

Birmingham Population and Diversity Statistics

Breaking down the population from the 2010 census shows that almost three-quarters of Birmingham’s total population is Black or African America.

The city is not just ethnically diverse but also is very diverse when it comes to religion. It is the site of many Christian churches, as well as mosques, Hindu temples, and synagogues. The city has the highest ratio of Protestant followers in the country based on 2010 data.

The city also has a very high rate of crime and was ranked 20th in the country based on the highest crime rates. Violent crime has continued to rise over the last few years, particularly in low-income areas. The city is ranked the third most violent in the US.

Birmingham Population Growth

The city of Birmingham saw population growth through its earliest years, but since the 1970s has posted population losses in every 10-year census. Most recently, the population dropped by over 12% between 2000 and 2010. Estimates from 2017 show that some growth has occurred since the last census in 2010. The high crime rates have contributed to the falling population numbers. “White flight” has also occurred as people move from the city to the suburbs following the loss of jobs. Birmingham’s plans to revitalize the city could contribute to future population growth, and the current numbers showing that it’s on the upswing again could be a positive sign for this Alabama city.

Birmingham was founded in 1871 through the merger of three farm towns. In its earliest years, it became a center for railroad transportation and mining, iron and steel industries. It was developed primarily to use immigrants for cheap labor, whereas other cities at this time were unionized. The city was named after Birmingham, England, which at the time was a leading industrial city.

The city began growing at a rapid rate, although a cholera outbreak and the stock market crash – both which occurred in the 1800s – did slow growth temporarily. However, the early 1900s saw extensive growth and the city became known as “The Magic City.” The Great Depression brought about another set of challenges for Birmingham. As its industries were struggling, farm laborers also flooded the city in hopes of finding employment. It was so bad that the president said that Birmingham was the “worst-hit town” in the US.

However, Birmingham bounced back fairly quickly as demand for steel during World War II boosted the economy. It was during this time that the city’s manufacturing sector also grew, while schools, parks, and museums were erected around the area. The city faced more controversy during the 1950s and 1960s when racially-charged bombings occurred to the homes of black families, and Birmingham became known as “Bombingham.” Martin Luther King, Jr. came to the city to take part in a non-violent demonstration and was jailed in the city, where he wrote the “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”

In more recent years, the city has focused on urban-renewal efforts and has upgraded its city center, developed the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and has completed other improvements throughout the city. The downtown area is in the process of being reconstructed, bringing in new housing, retail, restaurant and cultural options to bring in new residents and visitors. It has also become a leading business and banking center in the US.

Birmingham Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Birmingham was:

  • Black or African American: 69.85%
  • White: 25.81%
  • Two or more races: 1.49%
  • Other race: 1.45%
  • Asian: 1.08%
  • Native American: 0.30%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.02%
The current population of Birmingham, Alabama is 207,235 based on our projections of the latest US Census estimates. The US Census estimates the 2018 population at 210,487.The last official US Census in 2010 recorded the population at 212,237.

Birmingham, Alabama Population 2021

2019 and 2020 population is estimated by projecting the raw 2018 numbers.

Year Population Growth Growth Rate
20211,095,3702,4700.23%
20201,092,9002,4600.23%
20191,090,4402,4700.23%
20181,087,9702,3500.22%
20171,085,6202,7400.25%
20161,082,8803,1300.29%
20151,079,7503,6600.34%
20141,076,0903,2100.30%
20131,072,8805,3200.50%
20121,067,5603,5300.33%
20111,064,0302,3100.22%
20101,061,7200.00%

Birmingham Metro Area Population by Year

Population by Race

Race Population Percentage
Black or African American148,29769.85%
White54,79625.81%
Two or More Races3,1621.49%
Some Other Race3,0771.45%
Asian2,2901.08%
American Indian and Alaska Native6310.30%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander440.02%
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Birmingham Population by Race

Birmingham Population Pyramid $2021

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Birmingham Median Age

35.9


Total

33.6


Male

38.4


Female

Birmingham Adults

There are 169,592 adults, (31,643 of whom are seniors) in Birmingham.

Birmingham Age Dependency

53.9

Age Dependency Ratio

22.9

Old Age Dependency Ratio

31

Child Dependency Ratio

Birmingham Sex Ratio

Female

112,130

52.82%

Male

100,167

47.18%

Birmingham Population by Age

Birmingham Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

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Birmingham Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married67.3%32.7%
Male53.2%46.8%
All44.9%55.1%
Non Family36.8%63.2%
Female35.5%64.5%

44.9%

Rate of Home Ownership

Birmingham Households and Families

Type Count Average Size Owned
All90,8672.2444.9
Non Family44,1141.2236.8
Married22,6113.0267.3
Female19,6943.435.5
Male4,4483.2353.2

3.12

Average Family Size

2.24

Average Household Size

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Birmingham Households by Type

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Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade4,7833.26%
9th to 12th Grade14,81510.09%
High School Graduate41,45428.23%
Some College33,37322.73%
Associates Degree12,1938.30%
Bachelors Degree25,01517.04%
Graduate Degree15,19410.35%
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Birmingham Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Race

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Race Total High School Bachelors
Black100,00385,07416,590
White39,32036,63621,139
Hispanic4,3262,668818
Asian1,7991,7021,312
Other Race1,556948157
2+ Races1,2441,073471
Native American48238918
Islander252512

The highest rate of high school graduation is among islander people with a rate of 100.00%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 72.93%.

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Race

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Name Average Male Female
Overall$30,592$33,574$27,660
Less Than 9th Grade$19,247$22,983$14,298
High School Graduate$24,832$29,136$21,453
Some College$26,150$30,024$24,348
Bachelors Degree$46,134$54,035$41,130
Graduate Degree$56,065$62,859$53,673

$30,592

Average Earnings

$33,574

Average Male

$27,660

Average Female

Birmingham Earnings by Educational Attainment

Birmingham Language by Age

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Birmingham Language

94.59% of Birmingham residents speak only English, while 5.41% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 3.38% of the population.

Birmingham Language

Birmingham Poverty by Race

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Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Black145,32041,98928.89%
White47,0057,73716.46%
Hispanic7,8351,98225.30%
Multiple2,91587730.09%
Other2,88985729.66%
Asian2,11843920.73%
Native59431252.53%

25.90%

Overall Poverty Rate

23.87%

Male Poverty Rate

27.71%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Birmingham

The race most likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is Native, with 52.53% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is White, with 16.46% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 5.21%. Among those working part-time, it was 31.04%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 35.38%.

Birmingham Poverty

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Name Poverty
Less Than 9th Grade33.19%
High School26.09%
Some College21.43%
Bachelors or Greater7.37%

Birmingham Poverty Rate by Education

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Rate Poverty
Female Unemployed64.21%
Male Unemployed38.79%
Female Employed14.70%
Male Employed8.66%

Birmingham Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Birmingham Income by Household Type

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Name Median Mean
Households$37,375$54,559
Families$48,016$66,590
Married Families$75,852$95,010
Non Families$25,704$40,272
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Income by Household Type

Birmingham Marital Status

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Marriage Rates

28.7%

Overall Marriage Rate

31.0%

Male Marriage Rate

26.8%

Female Marriage Rate

Birmingham Married by Age and Sex

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Birmingham Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 55-64.

Birmingham Marital Status by Race

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Birmingham Marital Status

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12,451

Number of Veterans

10,960

Male Veterans

1,491

Female Veterans

War Veterans
Vietnam4,418
First Gulf War2,458
Second Gulf War2,042
Korea810
World War II310

Birmingham Veterans by War

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Age Group Veterans
55 to 643,244
65 to 743,055
35 to 542,914
75+2,315
18 to 34923

Birmingham Veterans by Age

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Name Veterans % of Total
Black9,0497.98%
White3,2756.61%
Native American7013.54%
Hispanic280.53%
Asian271.25%
Other Race180.97%
2+ Races120.61%

Birmingham Veterans by Race

Birmingham Veterans by Education

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12.77%

Veteran Poverty Rate

33.44%

Veteran Disability Rate

Birmingham Veterans by Education

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60.3%

Labor Force Participation

54.7%

Employment Rate

9%

Unemployment Rate

Birmingham Employment by Age

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Birmingham Employment by Race

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Birmingham Employment by Education

Origin of Non-Citizens

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Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

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77.56%

Born in Birmingham

96.17%

Native Born

3.83%

Foreign Born

2.91%

Non Citizen

0.93%

Naturalized

Place of Birth

96.17% of Birmingham residents were born in the United States, with 77.56% having been born in Alabama. 2.91% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.

Birmingham Place of Birth

Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
2021207,235-1,084-0.52%
2020208,319-1,084-0.52%
2019209,403-1,084-0.51%
2018210,487-1,046-0.49%
2017211,533-444-0.21%
2016211,977-282-0.13%
2015212,2596080.29%
2014211,651-114-0.05%
2013211,7654780.23%
2012211,287-808-0.38%
2011212,095-233-0.11%
2010212,328-30,492-1.33%
2000242,820-23,148-0.91%
1990265,968-18,445-0.67%
1980284,413-16,497-0.56%
1970300,910-39,977-1.24%
1960340,88714,8500.45%
1950326,03758,4542.00%
1940267,5837,9050.30%
1930259,67880,8723.80%
1920178,80646,1213.03%
1910132,68594,27013.20%
190038,41512,2373.91%
189026,17823,09223.84%
18803,0860.00%

Birmingham Population by Year