Birmingham, Alabama Population 2023

197,283

Birmingham is a city located in Jefferson County and Shelby County Alabama. It is also the county seat of Jefferson County. With a 2023 population of 197,283, it is the 3rd largest city in Alabama and the 138th largest city in the United States.Birmingham is currently declining at a rate of -0.58% annually and its population has decreased by -1.72% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 200,733 in 2020. Spanning over 149 miles, Birmingham has a population density of 1,351 people per square mile.

The average household income in Birmingham is $54,559 with a poverty rate of 28.56%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to - per month, and the median house value is -. The median age in Birmingham is 36.2 years, 34.1 years for males, and 38.3 years for females.

The city was founded in 1871 and was once one of the primary industrial centers of the United States’ southern region. Today, while its industries have changed, it remains one of the country’s most important business and banking centers in the US.

Birmingham Population and Diversity Statistics

Breaking down the population from the 2010 census shows that almost three-quarters of Birmingham’s total population is Black or African America.

The city is not just ethnically diverse but also is very diverse when it comes to religion. It is the site of many Christian churches, as well as mosques, Hindu temples, and synagogues. The city has the highest ratio of Protestant followers in the country based on 2010 data.

The city also has a very high rate of crime and was ranked 20th in the country based on the highest crime rates. Violent crime has continued to rise over the last few years, particularly in low-income areas. The city is ranked the third most violent in the US.

Birmingham Population Growth

The city of Birmingham saw population growth through its earliest years, but since the 1970s has posted population losses in every 10-year census. Most recently, the population dropped by over 12% between 2000 and 2010. Estimates from 2017 show that some growth has occurred since the last census in 2010. The high crime rates have contributed to the falling population numbers. “White flight” has also occurred as people move from the city to the suburbs following the loss of jobs. Birmingham’s plans to revitalize the city could contribute to future population growth, and the current numbers showing that it’s on the upswing again could be a positive sign for this Alabama city.

Birmingham was founded in 1871 through the merger of three farm towns. In its earliest years, it became a center for railroad transportation and mining, iron and steel industries. It was developed primarily to use immigrants for cheap labor, whereas other cities at this time were unionized. The city was named after Birmingham, England, which at the time was a leading industrial city.

The city began growing at a rapid rate, although a cholera outbreak and the stock market crash – both which occurred in the 1800s – did slow growth temporarily. However, the early 1900s saw extensive growth and the city became known as “The Magic City.” The Great Depression brought about another set of challenges for Birmingham. As its industries were struggling, farm laborers also flooded the city in hopes of finding employment. It was so bad that the president said that Birmingham was the “worst-hit town” in the US.

However, Birmingham bounced back fairly quickly as demand for steel during World War II boosted the economy. It was during this time that the city’s manufacturing sector also grew, while schools, parks, and museums were erected around the area. The city faced more controversy during the 1950s and 1960s when racially-charged bombings occurred to the homes of black families, and Birmingham became known as “Bombingham.” Martin Luther King, Jr. came to the city to take part in a non-violent demonstration and was jailed in the city, where he wrote the “Letter from Birmingham Jail.”

In more recent years, the city has focused on urban-renewal efforts and has upgraded its city center, developed the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and has completed other improvements throughout the city. The downtown area is in the process of being reconstructed, bringing in new housing, retail, restaurant and cultural options to bring in new residents and visitors. It has also become a leading business and banking center in the US.

Birmingham Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Birmingham was:

  • Black or African American: 68.29%
  • White: 26.59%
  • Two or more races: 2%
  • Other race: 1.63%
  • Asian: 1.25%
  • Native American: 0.2%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.04%
The current population of Birmingham, Alabama is 197,283 based on our projections of the latest US Census estimates.The last official US Census in 2020 recorded the population at 200,733.

Birmingham, Alabama Population 2023

Birmingham Metro Area Population by Year

Population by Race

Black or African American

White

Two or more races

Other race

Asian

Native American

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Birmingham Population by Race

Birmingham Population Pyramid 2023

Birmingham Median Age

36.2

Total

34.1

Male

38.3

Female

Birmingham Adults

There are 170,117 adults, (32,913 of whom are seniors) in Birmingham.

Birmingham Age Dependency

53.7

Age Dependency Ratio

24

Old Age Dependency Ratio

29.7

Child Dependency Ratio

Birmingham Sex Ratio

Female112,40753.29%
Male98,52146.71%

Birmingham Population by Age

Birmingham Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

3.12

Average Family Size

2.2

Average Household Size

45.9%

Rate of Home Ownership

Married

Male

Female

NonFamily

owner

renter

Birmingham Households and Families

Male

Female

Less Than 9th Grade

9th to 12th Grade

High School Graduate

Some College

Associates Degree

Bachelors Degree

Graduate Degree

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Race

High School Graduation Rate

Bachelors Rate

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 78.7%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 61.48%.

Birmingham Educational Attainment by Race

All

Male

Female

$31,214

Average Earnings

$33,886

Average Male

$29,496

Average Female

Birmingham Earnings by Educational Attainment

Birmingham Language by Age

Only English

Spanish

Other Indo-European Languages

Asian and Pacific Island Languages

Other Languages

Birmingham Language

94.19% of Birmingham residents speak only English, while 5.81% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 3.74% of the population.

Birmingham Language

Birmingham Poverty by Race

rate

28.56%

Overall Poverty Rate

22.41%

Male Poverty Rate

26.75%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Birmingham

The race most likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is Native, with 65.4% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Birmingham is White, with 15.32% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 4.45%. Among those working part-time, it was 31.57%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 33.75%.

Birmingham Poverty

Birmingham Poverty Rate by Education

Birmingham Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Birmingham Income by Household Type

Households

Families

MarriedFamilies

NonFamilies

mean

median

Income by Household Type

Birmingham Marital Status

Married

Widowed

Divorced

Separated

NeverMarried

Marriage Rates

28.8%

Overall Marriage Rate

31.2%

Male Marriage Rate

26.9%

Female Marriage Rate

Birmingham Married by Age and Sex

male

female

Birmingham Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 55-64.

Birmingham Marital Status by Race

Married

Widowed

Divorced

Separated

NeverMarried

Birmingham Marital Status

Second Gulf War

First Gulf War

Vietnam

Korea

World War II

12,322

Number of Veterans

11,114

Male Veterans

1,208

Female Veterans

Birmingham Veterans by War

Birmingham Veterans by Age

count

Birmingham Veterans by Race

Birmingham Veterans by Education

Less Than 9th Grade

High School Graduate

Some College

Bachelors or Greater

13.92%

Veteran Poverty Rate

32.24%

Veteran Disability Rate

Birmingham Veterans by Education

LaborForceParticipation

59.2%

Labor Force Participation

54.2%

Employment Rate

8.3%

Unemployment Rate

Birmingham Employment by Age

LaborForceParticipation

Birmingham Employment by Race

LaborForceParticipation

Birmingham Employment by Education

Origin of Non-Citizens

Europe

Asia

Africa

Oceania

Latin America

North America

Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

Europe

Asia

Africa

Oceania

Latin America

North America

80.56%

Born in Birmingham

100.84%

Native Born

4.24%

Foreign Born

3.29%

Non Citizen

0.96%

Naturalized

Place of Birth

100.84% of Birmingham residents were born in the United States, with 80.56% having been born in Alabama. 3.29% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.

Birmingham Place of Birth

Note: data after 2020 is projected based on recent growth

Birmingham Population by Year