Boston, Massachusetts Population 2021

695,506
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Boston is a city located in Middlesex County and Suffolk County Massachusetts. With a 2020 population of 695,506, it is the largest city in Massachusetts and the 21st largest city in the United States . Boston is currently growing at a rate of 0.21% annually and its population has increased by 12.62% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 617,594 in 2010. Boston reached it's highest population of 801,444 in 1950. Spanning over 90 miles, Boston has a population density of 14,388 people per square mile.

The average household income in Boston is $107,608 with a poverty rate of 18.91%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to $1,620 per month, and the median house value is $532,700. The median age in Boston is 32.2 years, 31.7 years for males, and 32.7 years for females.

Boston is the capital and largest city in Massachusetts in the United States. It's also the largest city in New England and represents the 23rd largest city in the US. Boston was founded in 1630, making it one of the oldest cities in the country, and it was the scene of many important events in the American Revolution. Today, the city is an international center for medicine and higher learning.

This city of 90 square miles is home to one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. The city had a population of 618,000 people in 2010, which has increased to approximately {pop}.

The city of Boston is home to an estimated 667,137 people in 2016, although the Greater Boston area is home to an estimated 4.7 million, making it the 10th largest metropolitan area in the United States. As a commuting region, Greater Boston has an even larger population of 8.1 million, which makes it the 6th largest Combined Statistical Area in the country.

Population Density in Boston

Boston has a density of 13,841 people per square mile (5,344/square kilometer), and Greater Boston is the 4th most densely populated region in the United States, after New York Metro Area, Greater Los Angeles, and South Florida Metro Area. Somerville, a city just north of Boston and included in its metropolitan area, has the highest population density of 18,431.6 people per square mile.

Interestingly, Boston's actual population fluctuates rapidly between day and night, as well as during special events. It's estimated that 1.2 million people are in the city during work hours, and 2 million during special events in the city, as hundreds of thousands of residents in the suburbs commute to the city for education, health care, and work.

Boston Diversity

Whites represented a 94.7% majority of the city's population in 1950, but the percentage of non-Hispanic whites in the region declined for much of the next 50 years. By 2000, non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 49.5% of the population, which made Boston a majority-minority city for the first time in its history. Over the last decade, the city has experienced a great deal of gentrification, and the percentage of non-Hispanic whites was starting to grow. By 2010, this trend reversed once more, partially due to the housing crash, and the minority population rebounded in Boston.

The single largest ethnic group in Boston is Irish, which accounts for 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians with 8.3% of the population. Those of West Indian ancestry account for 6% of Boston's population, and some areas have seen a great deal of immigration from Vietnam recently, while other areas are seeing an increase in the number of Dominican Americans. South Asians account for a substantial amount of Boston's immigration, and the city has the 10th largest Indian population in the United States.

There are also about 25,000 Jews in Boston, or 227,000 in its metropolitan area, while nearby communities like Newton are nearly one-third Jewish.

Boston Population Growth

Boston is experiencing colossal growth lately thanks to an immigration boom, and the Boston area gained close to 55,000 residents in the two years following the 2010 Census, according to 2013 estimates from the Census Bureau. This is also the first time Boston's population has passed 600,000 since the 1970s.

While the state's population growth of 1.5% is just behind the nation's rate of 1.7%, Massachusetts as a whole is still doing better than most of the country, and it's now the fastest growing state in the Northeast.

It seems most of the growth in the state is comprised of immigrants, who have been critical to the state's growth over the past ten years. Without immigration, the state's population would have declined.

In 1990, Boston's population was 20% foreign-born, but this number has grown to 27% and shows signs of increasing. Recent immigrants to the area come mostly from Latin America and Asia, and many are coming for science and technology jobs.

Thanks to this immigration boom, Boston's population is also growing younger, as nearly one-third of its residents are 20-34, which is younger than most other major cities in the country.

Boston is growing at its fastest rate in decades, which is transforming the city with more than 5,000 homes in development. While immigrants and young families are moving to Boston, so too are major companies, which are attracted by talented workers in the region.

To keep up with this rapid growth, Boston is now attempting to rapidly expand housing with plans for 30,000 new housing units by 2020. The city's population growth rate of 3.1% is expected to continue through at least 2020, reaching around 780,000 to 790,000 by the next Census in 2020.

Boston Demographics

According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Boston was:

  • White: 52.82%
  • Black or African American: 25.23%
  • Asian: 9.67%
  • Other race: 6.65%
  • Two or more races: 5.28%
  • Native American: 0.29%
  • Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.06%
The current population of Boston, Massachusetts is 695,506 based on our projections of the latest US Census estimates. The US Census estimates the 2018 population at 691,147.The last official US Census in 2010 recorded the population at 617,594.

Boston, Massachusetts Population 2021

Population by Race

Race Population Percentage
White361,45552.82%
Black or African American172,65125.23%
Asian66,2079.67%
Some Other Race45,5186.65%
Two or More Races36,1135.28%
American Indian and Alaska Native2,0170.29%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander4180.06%
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Boston Population by Race

Boston Population Pyramid $2021

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Boston Median Age

32.2


Total

31.7


Male

32.7


Female

Boston Adults

There are 575,376 adults, (78,861 of whom are seniors) in Boston.

Boston Age Dependency

37.8

Age Dependency Ratio

15.9

Old Age Dependency Ratio

22

Child Dependency Ratio

Boston Sex Ratio

Female

355,876

52.00%

Male

328,503

48.00%

Boston Population by Age

Boston Renter vs Owner Occupied by Household Type

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Boston Household Types

Type Owner Renter
Married56.9%43.1%
Male35.2%64.8%
All35%65%
Non Family26.1%73.9%
Female24.6%75.4%

35.0%

Rate of Home Ownership

Boston Households and Families

Type Count Average Size Owned
All269,5222.3635
Non Family139,9801.5326.1
Married76,3363.1956.9
Female41,2853.3624.6
Male11,9213.3835.2

3.13

Average Family Size

2.36

Average Household Size

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Boston Households by Type

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Education Attained Count Percentage
Less Than 9th Grade34,0047.18%
9th to 12th Grade26,5045.59%
High School Graduate93,38619.71%
Some College62,26613.14%
Associates Degree21,9894.64%
Bachelors Degree128,04527.03%
Graduate Degree107,58122.71%
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Boston Educational Attainment by Sex (over 25)

Boston Educational Attainment by Race

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Race Total High School Bachelors
White230,796222,136163,851
Black113,07994,75624,595
Hispanic81,32056,94119,301
Asian45,28435,72724,098
Other Race28,20220,0585,357
2+ Races20,10614,5746,819
Native American1,4161,140314
Islander188164100

The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 96.25%.

The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 70.99%.

Boston Educational Attainment by Race

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Name Average Male Female
Overall$51,141$54,508$46,957
Less Than 9th Grade$24,142$28,282$19,772
High School Graduate$31,471$36,199$26,525
Some College$37,555$42,427$32,770
Bachelors Degree$63,722$72,640$58,049
Graduate Degree$77,153$88,807$70,989

$51,141

Average Earnings

$54,508

Average Male

$46,957

Average Female

Boston Earnings by Educational Attainment

Boston Language by Age

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Boston Language

62.28% of Boston residents speak only English, while 37.72% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 16.80% of the population.

Boston Language

Boston Poverty by Race

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Name Total In Poverty Poverty Rate
Hispanic130,48738,21729.29%
Black168,76237,21422.05%
White278,56330,29310.87%
Asian59,77117,47329.23%
Other43,77514,00832.00%
Multiple34,3787,70322.41%
Native1,93155428.69%
Islander378287.41%

18.91%

Overall Poverty Rate

17.00%

Male Poverty Rate

20.68%

Female Poverty Rate

Poverty in Boston

The race most likely to be in poverty in Boston is Other, with 32.00% below the poverty level.

The race least likely to be in poverty in Boston is Islander, with 7.41% below the poverty level.

The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 1.90%. Among those working part-time, it was 23.80%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 39.67%.

Boston Poverty

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Name Poverty
Less Than 9th Grade32.31%
High School20.37%
Some College15.39%
Bachelors or Greater7.20%

Boston Poverty Rate by Education

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Rate Poverty
Female Unemployed40.10%
Male Unemployed35.80%
Female Employed9.60%
Male Employed5.62%

Boston Poverty Rate by Employment Status and Sex

Boston Income by Household Type

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Name Median Mean
Households$71,115$107,608
Families$82,363$125,402
Married Families$126,595$170,084
Non Families$57,784$87,656
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Income by Household Type

Boston Marital Status

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Marriage Rates

30.3%

Overall Marriage Rate

32.1%

Male Marriage Rate

28.7%

Female Marriage Rate

Boston Married by Age and Sex

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Boston Marriage

The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 55-64.

Boston Marital Status by Race

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Boston Marital Status

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16,022

Number of Veterans

14,678

Male Veterans

1,344

Female Veterans

War Veterans
Vietnam4,902
Second Gulf War4,189
First Gulf War2,023
Korea1,454
World War II520

Boston Veterans by War

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Age Group Veterans
75+4,047
65 to 743,332
35 to 543,323
18 to 342,736
55 to 642,584

Boston Veterans by Age

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Name Veterans % of Total
White11,2343.49%
Black3,4912.63%
Hispanic1,0571.05%
2+ Races5432.17%
Asian3350.57%
Other Race2860.83%
Native American1337.75%

Boston Veterans by Race

Boston Veterans by Education

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13.59%

Veteran Poverty Rate

30.91%

Veteran Disability Rate

Boston Veterans by Education

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69.8%

Labor Force Participation

65%

Employment Rate

6.6%

Unemployment Rate

Boston Employment by Age

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Boston Employment by Race

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Boston Employment by Education

Origin of Non-Citizens

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Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.

Origin of Naturalized Citizens

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43.15%

Born in Boston

71.70%

Native Born

28.30%

Foreign Born

14.32%

Non Citizen

13.98%

Naturalized

Place of Birth

71.70% of Boston residents were born in the United States, with 43.15% having been born in Massachusetts. 14.32% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.

Boston Place of Birth

Year Population Growth Annual Growth Rate
2021695,5061,4530.21%
2020694,0531,4530.21%
2019692,6001,4530.21%
2018691,1473,3590.49%
2017687,7887,9401.17%
2016679,8489,3571.40%
2015670,4917,6361.15%
2014662,8559,8531.51%
2013653,00210,0471.56%
2012642,95512,4501.97%
2011630,5059,4571.52%
2010621,04831,9070.53%
2000589,14114,8580.26%
1990574,28311,2890.20%
1980562,994-78,077-1.29%
1970641,071-56,126-0.84%
1960697,197-104,247-1.38%
1950801,44430,6280.39%
1940770,816-10,372-0.13%
1930781,18833,1280.43%
1920748,06077,4751.10%
1910670,585109,6931.80%
1900560,892112,4152.26%
1890448,47785,6382.14%
1880362,839112,3133.77%
1870250,52672,6863.49%
1860177,84040,9592.65%
1850136,88143,4983.90%
184093,38331,9914.28%
183061,39218,0943.55%
182043,2989,5112.51%
181033,7878,8503.08%
180024,9376,6173.13%
179018,3200.00%

Boston Population by Year