Dayton is a city located in Montgomery County Ohio. Dayton has a 2023 population of 136,598. It is also the county seat of Montgomery County.Dayton is currently declining at a rate of -0.35% annually and its population has decreased by -1.06% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 138,060 in 2020.
The average household income in Dayton is $51,901 with a poverty rate of 28.56%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to - per month, and the median house value is -. The median age in Dayton is 33.5 years, 31.9 years for males, and 34.6 years for females.
Part of Dayton is located in neighboring Greene County. The city is the sixth most populous in the state, and its metro area is the fourth largest in Ohio.
The top employer of Dayton is Premier Health Partners, which employs over 14,000 people. Other top employers are Montgomery County, Sinclair Community College, Dayton Public Schools and the University of Dayton.
Through the 1960s, Dayton experienced significant growth, exceeding 116,000 residents in 1910 and then surpassing 200,000 in 1930. The population peaked at the time of the 1960 census, which showed that there were 262,332 residents. However, the population began to drop after, falling to 141,759 at the time of the 2010 census. Recent estimates show that the population has fallen 0.9% since the last census, indicating that the loss in population may be slowing down and efforts to revitalize the city may be successful.
The city of Dayton was founded in 1796 by the Thompson Party. Other groups arrived shortly after that to the area. Just one year later, the “Mad River Country” was open to settlers, and an overland connection was created between the city and Cincinnati. Dayton was incorporated as a city in 1805 and was named in honor of the Revolutionary War captain Jonathan Dayton.
In the 1820s, the Dayton-Cincinnati canal was constructed. This provided means for transporting goods and helped boost the city’s economy throughout the 19th century. It was during this time that many essential items were invented in Dayton, including the first mechanical cash register and the hydraulic jump.
It was the invention of the cash register that led to the formation of the National Cash Register Company in the late 1800s. This began Dayton’s journey into manufacturing, which would only continue to bolster the economy in the years ahead. A manufacturing boom occurred during World War II, and the population grew so rapidly that emergency housing was constructed.
The city continued to grow through the 1970s as veterans came to the area for the industrial and manufacturing opportunities that were available. There was also a suburban boom as the city expanded and over 127,000 homes were constructed in the 1950s.
However, this population boom didn’t last. Beginning in the 1980s, the population began to decline because of the national housing crisis of 2008 and the loss of manufacturing jobs. The city has taken steps to boost its growth, including diversifying the workforce and expanding the downtown area.
According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Dayton was:
Black or African American
Two or more races
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Average Family Size
Average Household Size
Rate of Home Ownership
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade
High School Graduate
High School Graduation Rate
The highest rate of high school graduation is among islander people with a rate of 100%.
The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 39.94%.
Other Indo-European Languages
Asian and Pacific Island Languages
92.89% of Dayton residents speak only English, while 7.11% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 3.36% of the population.
Overall Poverty Rate
Male Poverty Rate
Female Poverty Rate
The race most likely to be in poverty in Dayton is Other, with 42.39% below the poverty level.
The race least likely to be in poverty in Dayton is Islander, with 20.59% below the poverty level.
The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 4.78%. Among those working part-time, it was 32.96%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 37.58%.
Overall Marriage Rate
Male Marriage Rate
Female Marriage Rate
The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 45-54.
Second Gulf War
First Gulf War
World War II
Less Than 9th Grade
High School Graduate
Bachelors or Greater
Veteran Poverty Rate
Veteran Disability Rate
Labor Force Participation
Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.
Born in Dayton
104.86% of Dayton residents were born in the United States, with 78.17% having been born in Ohio. 3.21% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.