Tucson is a city located in Pima County Arizona. Tucson has a 2023 population of 546,019. It is also the county seat of Pima County.Tucson is currently growing at a rate of 0.26% annually and its population has increased by 0.77% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 541,859 in 2020.
The average household income in Tucson is $63,665 with a poverty rate of 19.78%. The median rental costs in recent years comes to - per month, and the median house value is -. The median age in Tucson is 34.2 years, 33 years for males, and 35.4 years for females.
Tucson has a robust temporary population, which grows and recedes seasonally. Much of the city's economy is centered on the University of Arizona, which is the city's second largest employer, as well as tourism, with over 3.5 million people visiting the city each year. Along with vacationers, there are a large number of winter residents (snowbirds) who come for the mild winters — many own second homes in the area.
Tucson has always had a seasonal population as migratory retirees have spent their winters in the city. During the recession, Tucson went from being one of the hottest real estate markets to one of the most troubled, and the city is now one of the poorest big cities in the United States with a per capita income of just over $20,000. Water shortage has also become an issue as the city's population grows. Despite the problems, the region is expected to see its population double in the next 30 years to around 2 million people.
Paleo-Indians first inhabited Tucson, and recent archaeological work has found a village dating to 2100 BC. The area was first used for farming with extensive irrigation canals. In 1692, Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the area and founded a mission eight years later upstream of present-day Tucson. A second settlement was established downstream. Hugo O'Connor, the founding father of Tucson, authorized the construction of a military fort called Presidio San Agustin del Tucson in 1775.
The town was eventually known as Tucson and became a part of Mexico after Mexico gained independence. It was then captured by the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican-American War and was later returned to Mexico. The city was not included in the Mexican Cession, but it became a part of the United States in 1853, with formal control taken in 1856.
Tucson was briefly the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, although the Confederate forces were driven out of the state in 1862. The city and all of present-day Arizona was part of New Mexico Territory until 1863 when it became a part of Arizona. The city was incorporated in 1877 as the first incorporated city in Arizona.
According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Tucson was:
Two or more races
Black or African American
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Average Family Size
Average Household Size
Rate of Home Ownership
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade
High School Graduate
High School Graduation Rate
The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 78.85%.
The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among asian people with a rate of 36.1%.
Other Indo-European Languages
Asian and Pacific Island Languages
67.51% of Tucson residents speak only English, while 32.49% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 27.18% of the population.
Overall Poverty Rate
Male Poverty Rate
Female Poverty Rate
The race most likely to be in poverty in Tucson is Islander, with 37.34% below the poverty level.
The race least likely to be in poverty in Tucson is White, with 15.57% below the poverty level.
The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 4.16%. Among those working part-time, it was 26.53%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 29.2%.
Overall Marriage Rate
Male Marriage Rate
Female Marriage Rate
The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 35-44.
Second Gulf War
First Gulf War
World War II
Less Than 9th Grade
High School Graduate
Bachelors or Greater
Veteran Poverty Rate
Veteran Disability Rate
Labor Force Participation
Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.
Born in Tucson
89.78% of Tucson residents were born in the United States, with 47.99% having been born in Arizona. 7.75% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.