Manhattan is one of five boroughs of New York City and has the same boundaries as New York County. Most of the borough consists of Manhattan Island, which is bounded by the Hudson, East and Harlem Rivers, along with some land on the mainland and small islands.
Manhattan has an estimated population of 1.63 million people, all living in an area of just 23 square miles. This gives Manhattan a population density of 70,826 people per square mile, or 27,346 per square kilometer. Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five NYC boroughs and also the most densely populated county in the United States. It is more dense than any city in the country and one of the most densely populated areas on earth.
On weekdays, the number of commuters pushes the Manhattan population to more than 3.9 million, or 170,000 people per square mile.
Manhattan is the smallest borough in terms of land area and the third-largest in terms of population behind Brooklyn and Queens. Between 2000 and 2030, the population of Manhattan is expected to grow by 289,000 people. The school-age population is expected to increase, compared to an expected decline in New York City as a whole, by the elderly population is projected to grow by 58%.
The racial composition of Manhattan is:
Just 20% of people in Manhattan live in owner-occupied housing. This is the second-lowest rate of any county in the United States after the Bronx.
Manhattan has the second-highest number of non-Hispanic whites of any New York City borough at 48% behind Staten Island. About 27% of the population of Manhattan is foreign-born. People with Irish ancestry account for almost 8% of the population, while Italian Americans account for 7%, followed by German Americans (7%) and Russian Americans (6%).
Religious groups in Manhattan include the Roman Catholic Church (over 36% of the population), Jewish (20.5%), Protestants (9%) and Muslims (2.5%).
Manhattan has some of the most affluent and well-known neighborhoods in the country. Neighborhoods include:
"Manhattan" comes from the name Mannahatta, or "land of many hills," from the Lenape Indians, who lived on the island. The first European to reach Manhattan was Englishman Henry Hudson, who sailed for the Dutch and entered Upper New York Bay in 1609, although two earlier explorers in 1524 likely saw the island.
Manhattan was first settled by the Dutch in 1624, when a Dutch fur trading settlement was founded on Governors Island. A year later, Fort Amsterdam and a citadel were built on Manhattan Island, which was later called New Amsterdam, to protect new arrivals. According to documents, Manhattan was purchased by Dutch colonists from American Indians for the modern-day equivalent of $1,050. New Amsterdam was incorporated as a city in 1653, and it was renamed New York in 1664 when the English conquered the area. The Dutch Republic regained the city in 1673 and renamed it New Orange, although it was permanently ceded to the English just one year later in return for Run Island, a long-coveted link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.
It was in New York City in 1765 that the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from the Thirteen Colonies asserted the concept of "no taxation without representation," and the Sons of Liberty developed in Manhattan following this. Manhattan was also at the heart of many major battles of the early Revolutionary War.
During the Civil War, resentment grew in the city over Lincoln's war policy, particularly as the city then had a large and growing population of immigrants who could not afford to pay $300 to avoid conscription and felt free Blacks were taking their jobs. This resentment culminated in the 3-day New York Draft Riots, which was one of the worst incidents of civil disorder in the country's history that left about 119 people dead.
Manhattan was established as its own borough of New York City in 1898, at which time it had a white population of 98.7%, which dropped to just over 58% by 1990. The city grew rapidly, and is still a destination for immigrants the world over.
Black or African American
Two or more races
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Average Family Size
Average Household Size
Rate of Home Ownership
Less Than 9th Grade
9th to 12th Grade
High School Graduate
High School Graduation Rate
The highest rate of high school graduation is among white people with a rate of 88.68%.
The highest rate of bachelors degrees is among white people with a rate of 76.17%.
Other Indo-European Languages
Asian and Pacific Island Languages
61.66% of Manhattan residents speak only English, while 38.34% speak other languages. The non-English language spoken by the largest group is Spanish, which is spoken by 21.14% of the population.
Overall Poverty Rate
Male Poverty Rate
Female Poverty Rate
The race most likely to be in poverty in Manhattan is Islander, with 34.3% below the poverty level.
The race least likely to be in poverty in Manhattan is White, with 7.1% below the poverty level.
The poverty rate among those that worked full-time for the past 12 months was 1.6%. Among those working part-time, it was 16%, and for those that did not work, the poverty rate was 34.99%.
Overall Marriage Rate
Male Marriage Rate
Female Marriage Rate
The age group where males are most likely to be married is Over 65, while the female age group most likely to be married is 35-44.
Second Gulf War
First Gulf War
World War II
Less Than 9th Grade
High School Graduate
Bachelors or Greater
Veteran Poverty Rate
Veteran Disability Rate
Labor Force Participation
Non citizens include legal permanent residents (green card holders), international students, temporary workers, humanitarian migrants, and illegal immigrants.
Born in Manhattan
74.18% of Manhattan residents were born in the United States, with 44.92% having been born in NY. 13.41% of residents are not US citizens. Of those not born in the United States, the largest percentage are from Latin America.