Luxembourg is a small landlocked nation in Western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. Luxembourg has an estimated population of 615,729. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union, along with Frankfurt, Brussels, and Strasbourg. Luxembourg has one of the fastest-growing population rates.
The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. During the 20th century, the immigrant population began to increase significantly. As of 2013, there were 537,039 permanent residents in Luxembourg, 44.5% of whom were foreign-born. Annually, about 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from European Union nations.
The countries with the highest number of immigrants in Luxembourg are Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, and Germany. Portuguese is the second-largest ethnic group in the country, behind Luxembourgers, with a population of about 95,516 and comprising 15.7% of the population. Following is French (7.5%), Italian (3.6%), and Belgian (3.3%). Over 6.4% of Luxembourg residents are from other European Union nation and 6.1% of residents are from other non-EU nations.
There are three official languages in Luxembourg: German, French, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language similar to German and Dutch. According to an EU survey, about 70% of Luxembourgers speak Luxembourgish as their native language. The three languages are spoken to varying extents everywhere in education, business, media, and between family, and both formally and informally. A study showed that 70.5% of the population used Luxembourgish at work, school, and/or home, 55.7% used French, and 30.6% used German. The same study showed that, on average, 2.2 languages are used.
Luxembourg Religion, Economy, and Politics
Despite being a secular state, Luxembourg recognizes certain religions as officially mandated religions. There are many active religions, with Christianity being the most popular. About 73.2% of Luxembourgers are affiliated with some form of Christianity, 63.8% of whom are Catholics, 1.8% are Protestants, 3.0% are Orthodox, and 4.6% adhere to other denominations. 15.9% of the population is Agnostic and 7.5% are Atheist. Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism are much smaller religions in Luxembourg, with 2.6%, 0.2%, and 0.1% of the population, respectively.
Luxembourg has a high-income market economy. Unemployment and inflation are low, and the economy experiences moderate growth and a high level of innovation. Luxembourg is one of the wealthiest nations in the world, with a per capita GDP of $119,719.
Luxembourg politics is what is known as a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, where the prime minister is the head of government. The Constitution of Luxembourg was established on October 17, 1868. The executive power is given to the Grand Duke and the cabinet, while legislative power rests with the Chamber of Deputies, a legislature of 60 members elected to five-year terms. The Grand Duke, or Duchess, is hereditary within the ruling dynasty and appoints the prime minister and vice prime minister.