Luxembourg Population 2023 (Live)


Luxembourg is currently experiencing very healthy population growth of 2.5%, in stark contrast to other European countries. By 2020, it's projected to have a population of 572,000.

Luxembourg Population Growth

While Luxembourg is one of the least-populous countries in Europe, it has the largest population growth rate of around 2.0% per year. The population rose by 2.18% between 2016 and 2017, 2.08% between 2017 and 2018, and 1.90% between 2018 and 2019. The nation’s first population record was in 1821 with a population of 134,082. The population grew steadily between each record except between 1930 and 1947 when the population decreased by 2.9%.

Luxembourg Population Projections

The growth rate is expected to remain around 2%. By 2100, the population is expected to rise to 985,000 people.

Population Rank
Growth Rate
2023 World Percentage
Land Area
The current population of Luxembourg is 655,800 based on projections of the latest United Nations data. The UN estimates the July 1, 2023 population at 654,768.

Luxembourg Growth Rate

Luxembourg Population 2023 (Live)

Luxembourg Population Clock

Luxembourg Population (as of 8/24/2023)655,800
Last UN Estimate (July 1, 2023)654,768
Births per Day18
Deaths per Day13
Migrations per Day13
Net Change per Day19
Population Change Since Jan. 14,465

Components of Population Change

One birth every 80 minutes
One death every 110.77 minutes
One immigrant every 110.77 minutes
Net gain of one person every 75.78 minutes

Luxembourg Population Clock

Luxembourg Area and Density

Luxembourg is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. Luxembourg is the 167th largest country in the world by land and the 169th largest by population. With an area of 998 square miles (2,586 square kilometers), making the population density 605.3 persons per square mile (233.7 persons per square kilometer, making it the 67th most densely populated country.

Largest Cities in Luxembourg

The largest city in Luxembourg is Luxembourg City, the country’s capital. Luxembourg City has a population of 119,214 as of January 2019. With an area of 19.87 square miles (51.46 square kilometers), the population density is 5,900 persons per square mile (2,300 persons per square kilometer). Luxembourg City is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union and is home to several bodies, agencies, and institutions of the EU, such as the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the European Investment Fund, and the European Investment Bank.

Luxembourg’s second-largest city, Esch-Sur-Alzette, is a fraction of the size of the population of Luxembourg City. Esch-Sur-Alzette has a population of 35,040 and is a commune with town status.

Luxembourg Population Density Map

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Luxembourg Population by Year (Historical)

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Luxembourg Population by Year (Projections)

Luxembourg Population Pyramid 2023

Luxembourg Median Age







Luxembourg Population by Age

There are people over age 18 in Luxembourg.

Census Years

Luxembourg Population Pyramid

Luxembourg is a small landlocked nation in Western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. Luxembourg has an estimated population of 615,729. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the four official capitals of the European Union, along with Frankfurt, Brussels, and Strasbourg. Luxembourg has one of the fastest-growing population rates.

Luxembourg Demographics

The people of Luxembourg are called Luxembourgers. During the 20th century, the immigrant population began to increase significantly. As of 2013, there were 537,039 permanent residents in Luxembourg, 44.5% of whom were foreign-born. Annually, about 10,000 new immigrants arrive in Luxembourg, mostly from European Union nations.

The countries with the highest number of immigrants in Luxembourg are Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, and Germany. Portuguese is the second-largest ethnic group in the country, behind Luxembourgers, with a population of about 95,516 and comprising 15.7% of the population. Following is French (7.5%), Italian (3.6%), and Belgian (3.3%). Over 6.4% of Luxembourg residents are from other European Union nation and 6.1% of residents are from other non-EU nations.

There are three official languages in Luxembourg: German, French, and Luxembourgish, a Franconian language similar to German and Dutch. According to an EU survey, about 70% of Luxembourgers speak Luxembourgish as their native language. The three languages are spoken to varying extents everywhere in education, business, media, and between family, and both formally and informally. A study showed that 70.5% of the population used Luxembourgish at work, school, and/or home, 55.7% used French, and 30.6% used German. The same study showed that, on average, 2.2 languages are used.

Luxembourg Religion, Economy, and Politics

Despite being a secular state, Luxembourg recognizes certain religions as officially mandated religions. There are many active religions, with Christianity being the most popular. About 73.2% of Luxembourgers are affiliated with some form of Christianity, 63.8% of whom are Catholics, 1.8% are Protestants, 3.0% are Orthodox, and 4.6% adhere to other denominations. 15.9% of the population is Agnostic and 7.5% are Atheist. Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism are much smaller religions in Luxembourg, with 2.6%, 0.2%, and 0.1% of the population, respectively.

Luxembourg has a high-income market economy. Unemployment and inflation are low, and the economy experiences moderate growth and a high level of innovation. Luxembourg is one of the wealthiest nations in the world, with a per capita GDP of $119,719.

Luxembourg politics is what is known as a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, where the prime minister is the head of government. The Constitution of Luxembourg was established on October 17, 1868. The executive power is given to the Grand Duke and the cabinet, while legislative power rests with the Chamber of Deputies, a legislature of 60 members elected to five-year terms. The Grand Duke, or Duchess, is hereditary within the ruling dynasty and appoints the prime minister and vice prime minister.

Luxembourg Population Rank 2023
2023 Growth Rate
$58.63 Bn

Luxembourg - General Info

  3. World Population Prospects (2022 Revision) - United Nations population estimates and projections.
  4. GeoNames