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Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) Countries 2024

Russia

Russia is the largest and most powerful member of the CSTO, a military alliance that also includes Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. The CSTO was founded in 1992 to promote regional security and cooperation among its member states. Russia plays a dominant role in the organization and is responsible for providing the majority of its funding and military support. Some say that the CSTO was created as a way to counteract NATO, which is a western military alliance that was created after WW2 and was especially prominent during the Cold War.

Russia has been a key player in the conflict in Syria, providing military support to the government of President Bashar al-Assad. The country has also been involved in ongoing tensions with Ukraine, including the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and ongoing fighting in eastern Ukraine. Russia has a significant nuclear arsenal and is one of the world's leading military powers. The country has used its military might to assert its influence in the region and beyond, including through its involvement in conflicts in Syria and Ukraine.

Russia's creation of the CSTO was also used as a way to restore some dominance over the area that it had before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Beginning with the Ukrainian conflict on Feb 24th, 2022, has soured relations with some of the CSTO members.

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is a central Asian country that borders Russia and is a member of the CSTO. The country is the ninth largest in the world by land area and is known for its vast oil and natural gas reserves, which have made it one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. Kazakhstan has also played a role in international efforts to denuclearize North Korea, hosting negotiations and providing support for disarmament.

Kazakhstan has a strong military and maintains close ties with Russia. The country has participated in CSTO military exercises and has contributed troops to peacekeeping operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan. Kazakhstan has also sought to improve its relations with other countries in the region, including through membership in organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

After the closing of western borders for Russian refugees fleeing conscription or fear of reprisal, Kazakhstan has remained the number one country accepting the large inflow.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan is a small, mountainous country in Central Asia and one of the weakest members of the CSTO. The country has a predominantly agricultural economy and is one of the poorest nations in the region. Kyrgyzstan has faced political instability and violence in recent years, including the 2010 ethnic clashes that killed hundreds of people and the overthrow of two presidents in 2005 and 2010. Of course, political instability has always been a large cause of poverty in a country.

Kyrgyzstan's military is relatively small and relies heavily on support from Russia. The country has participated in CSTO military exercises and has contributed troops to peacekeeping operations in Kosovo and Afghanistan. Kyrgyzstan has also sought to improve its relations with other countries in the region, including through membership in organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

- Union State is a political union made up of Russia and Belarus, formally titles Union State of Russia and Belarus, in which the two countries act as a single integrated whole in certain circumstances. The degree to which Union State is a precursor of a complete Russian/Belarusian union is unclear.

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Country
CSTO Member Status
AfghanistanNon-member observer (2013-)
ArmeniaCurrent since 1994
AzerbaijanFormer (1994-1999)
BelarusCurrent since 1994
GeorgiaFormer (1994-1999)
KazakhstanCurrent since 1994
KyrgyzstanCurrent since 1994
RussiaCurrent since 1994
SerbiaNon-member observer (2013-)
TajikistanCurrent since 1994
UzbekistanFormer (1994-1999, 2996-2012)
showing: 11 rows